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high-temperature corrosion

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... helps in preventing acid formation. Likewise, a wash with a soda ash solution neutralizes acids and helps in maintaining a basic pH. The high-temperature parts of a boiler such as the superheater and reheater tubes are susceptible to corrosion due to coal ash or oil ash depending on the fuel used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on resistance characteristics and methods of protecting different forms of high-temperature gaseous corrosion, namely high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, hydrogen effects, and hot corrosion. high-temperature gaseous corrosion high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... alloys. Some categories of corrosion covered are pitting, crevice, intergranular, stress-corrosion cracking, general, and high-temperature corrosion. stainless steels nickel alloys corrosion resistance alloying elements pitting corrosion crevice corrosion intergranular corrosion stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... environments also exist in refining processes. Foremost is corrosion caused by organic acids at high temperatures, commonly termed naphthenic acid corrosion . Sulfide and other sulfur species contained in the hydrocarbon stream can also be corrosive at high concentrations and at high temperatures. Many...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., failures, and so on. See the section “ Hydrogen Attack ” in this article. Low-alloy steels are widely used for refinery service and are generally the C-Cr-Mo steels containing between 1 and 9% Cr. These steels have excellent strength retention, resistance to high-temperature sulfidic corrosion (due to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... readily weldable. There are two large groups of the commercial nickel-base alloys. One group was designed to withstand high-temperature and dry or gaseous corrosion, while the other is mainly dedicated to withstanding low-temperature aqueous corrosion. Nickel-base alloys used for low-temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... , 1995 42. Kobrin G. , Ed., Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion , NACE International , 1993 43. Stoecker J.G. II , Ed., Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion , Vol 2 , NACE International , 2001 44. Lai G.Y. , High Temperature Corrosion of Engineering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...%), which imparts high-temperature corrosion resistance for applications such as internal combustion engine pistons. The alloys in this series contain primarily manganese, up to 1.5%. Several also contain magnesium, up to 1.5%. The alloys in this series are strengthened by work hardening and are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... as-welded condition in highly corrosive environments. Table 8 Secondary phases in high-performance stainless steels Stainless steels (a) Phase Symbol Type Formula Temperature range (b) °C °F D Chromium carbide … M 7 C 3 (Cr,Fe,Mo) 7 C 3 950–1050 1740–1920 A...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., and climatic values ( Ref 1 – 13 ). Atmospheric corrosion is distinguished from the corrosion of metals exposed to high temperatures in an absence of moisture on the metal surface (dry or gaseous corrosion), which does not correspond to the terrestrial atmospheric humidity and temperature. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... affords greater protection at higher temperatures. Figure 7 also shows that at temperatures beyond 120 °C (250 °F), the corrosion rate is almost independent of the CO 2 partial pressure of the system. The carbonate film may, however, be weakened by high chloride concentrations or can be broken by high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., metallurgical transformations occur across the weld metal and HAZ, and these microstructures can significantly alter the intrinsic corrosion rate of the steel. Fusion welding produces a weld metal that, due to the high cooling rate, is effectively a chill casting containing a high density of lattice defects and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Corrosion Cracking of Alloys 600 and 690 and Nos. 82 and 182 Weld Metals in High Temperature Water , Corrosion , Vol 39 ( No. 10 ), Oct 1983 , p 409 – 421 10.5006/1.3593883 48. McIlree A.R. and Michels H.T. , Stress Corrosion Behavior of Fe-Cr-Ni and Other Alloys in High...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Su H. , High-Temperature Wheel Test Simulates CO 2 Corrosion , Oil Gas J. , Vol 84 , April 1986 , p 62 – 64 76. Sutanto H. , “ Laboratory Studies of Flow Induced Localized Corrosion in CO 2 /H 2 S Environments; Development of Test Methodology ,” Paper 005, Corrosion/90...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... markedly with temperature. One exception was found in the case of a fusion-welded 1060 alloy in which no knife-line attack was observed even at temperatures as high as 70 °C(160 °F). In inhibited fuming HNO 3 containing at least 0.1% hydrofluoric acid (HF), no knife-line attack was observed for any...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ). Fig. 5 Effect of nickel and copper contamination on the salt-spray corrosion performance of die-cast AZ91 alloy. Source: Ref 7 Table 6 Known contaminant tolerance limits in high- and low-pressure cast forms Alloy/form Grain size, μm Critical contaminant limit, % Ref Fe Ni Cu...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... (EDTA) dissolves a protective magnetite film, as could occur in regions of high turbulence, rapid corrosion ensues, despite the absence of oxygen. The interrelationship of oxygen concentration, flow rate, and temperature in seawater-handling systems is shown in Fig. 1 ( Ref 16 ). Fig. 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... have a lower pitting potential, so pits would tend to form there first. Another study found that microsegregation of copper and iron impurities at nodes in high-purity aluminum was sufficient to increase the tendency for pitting corrosion at open circuit ( Ref 34 ). Temperature is also a critical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... modified. For example, type 405, containing nominally 11% Cr, is made with lower carbon and a small aluminum addition of 0.20% to restrict the formation of austenite at high temperature so that hardening is reduced during welding. For maximum ductility and corrosion resistance, however, postweld annealing...