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high-temperature corrosion

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... only if metal temperatures are below the dew point of water. Superheater and reheater tube surface temperatures are high enough not to permit the existence of water over the tube surface when the boiler is in operation. Fire-side failure of boiler tubes due to stress corrosion cracking therefore occurs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on resistance characteristics and methods of protecting different forms of high-temperature gaseous corrosion, namely high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, hydrogen effects, and hot corrosion. high-temperature gaseous corrosion high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... alloys. Some categories of corrosion covered are pitting, crevice, intergranular, stress-corrosion cracking, general, and high-temperature corrosion. stainless steels nickel alloys corrosion resistance alloying elements pitting corrosion crevice corrosion intergranular corrosion stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion caused by organic acids at high temperatures, commonly termed naphthenic acid corrosion . Sulfide and other sulfur species contained in the hydrocarbon stream can also be corrosive at high concentrations and at high temperatures. Many processes in the refinery involve distillation, often...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., failures, and so on. See the section “ Hydrogen Attack ” in this article. Low-alloy steels are widely used for refinery service and are generally the C-Cr-Mo steels containing between 1 and 9% Cr. These steels have excellent strength retention, resistance to high-temperature sulfidic corrosion (due to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... series contain lithium (<2.5%), and a few also contain silver (<1%). The corrosion resistance of these low-density alloys is similar to other alloys in this series. A special group of alloys in this series contains nickel (<2.5%), which imparts high-temperature corrosion resistance for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ( Ref 26 , 44 – 46 ). High temperatures always accelerate corrosion processes, and certain gases or liquids, which are considered innocuous under ambient conditions, become aggressive to materials when hot. A tenfold change in corrosion rate is not uncommon for a temperature change of 30 °C (54 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... readily weldable. There are two large groups of the commercial nickel-base alloys. One group was designed to withstand high-temperature and dry or gaseous corrosion, while the other is mainly dedicated to withstanding low-temperature aqueous corrosion. Nickel-base alloys used for low-temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., and climatic values ( Ref 1 – 13 ). Atmospheric corrosion is distinguished from the corrosion of metals exposed to high temperatures in an absence of moisture on the metal surface (dry or gaseous corrosion), which does not correspond to the terrestrial atmospheric humidity and temperature. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... highly corrosive environments. Table 8 Secondary phases in high-performance stainless steels Stainless steels (a) Phase Symbol Type Formula Temperature range (b) °C °F D Chromium carbide … M 7 C 3 (Cr,Fe,Mo) 7 C 3 950–1050 1740–1920 A,D,F Chromium carbide … M...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... shows that at temperatures beyond 120 °C (250 °F), the corrosion rate is almost independent of the CO 2 partial pressure of the system. The carbonate film may, however, be weakened by high chloride concentrations or can be broken by high velocity. In H 2 S-dominated systems, because of the fact that no...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... intergranular corrosion in certain environments, such as high-temperature caustic. Where embrittlement and intergranular corrosion must be avoided, alloy 201 (UNS N02201), with a maximum carbon content of 0.02%, is specified. Titanium as a carbide-stabilizing element is used in several ferritic and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... preferred remedial approach, because postweld heat treatment (PWHT) may necessitate temperatures high enough for normalizing to gain full benefit, which is usually impractical ( Ref 1 ). In some oil and gas production environments, preferential weldment corrosion may lead to enhanced HAZ attack or weld...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... solution temperature ( Ref 40 ). At low temperatures, extremely high breakdown potentials are observed, corresponding to transpassive dissolution, not localized corrosion. Just above the critical pitting temperature (CPT), pitting corrosion occurs at a potential that is far below the transpassive breakdown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... which no knife-line attack was observed even at temperatures as high as 70 °C(160 °F). In inhibited fuming HNO 3 containing at least 0.1% hydrofluoric acid (HF), no knife-line attack was observed for any commercial aluminum alloy or weldment even at 70 °C(160 °F). Although titanium and its alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ). Fig. 5 Effect of nickel and copper contamination on the salt-spray corrosion performance of die-cast AZ91 alloy. Source: Ref 7 Table 6 Known contaminant tolerance limits in high- and low-pressure cast forms Alloy/form Grain size, μm Critical contaminant limit, % Ref Fe Ni Cu...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... SRB to production equipment. Changes in temperature can increase SRB growth from zero to high levels. Additional information on this subject is available in the chapter “ Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion .” Another type of bacteria common in the petroleum industry is termed acid-producing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-, and aluminum-base alloys—can also be susceptible, although conditions for attack may differ. Titanium alloys are the most resistant to crevice corrosion with high temperatures and high chloride concentrations required. Although stainless steels and nickel alloys are susceptible, alloying can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... point, causing stray current corrosion. The morphology of stray current corrosion tends to be very localized at holidays (defects or holes) in the pipeline coating. Rates of attack can be very high, resulting in rapid perforation of a pipeline. In the case of stray current corrosion from a foreign...