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high-chromium white irons

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... phase in these irons can be adjusted by alloy content and heat treatment to develop the proper balance between resistance to abrasion and the toughness needed to withstand repeated impact. All high-alloy white irons contain chromium to prevent formation of graphite on solidification and to ensure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... irons, which can also be classified as either white or graphitic irons ( Fig. 10.27 ). In gray and ductile irons, small amounts of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, or nickel are used primarily to achieve high strength or to ensure the attainment of a specified minimum strength in heavy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... . These alloys are at the high end of the abrasion resistance spectrum, and they have the advantage of being available as a welding consumable, so they are a cheap construction steel and have the extreme abrasion resistance of white iron alloyed with chromium. These hardfacings are widely used for tips...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and/ or chromium can be added in combination with high silicon. The addition of nickel to gray iron improves its resistance to reducing acids and provides a high resistance to caustic alkalis. Chromium assists in forming a protective oxide that resists oxidizing acids, although it is of little benefit under...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... steels. Added to increase solid-solution strength and hardness as well as to increase hardenability. Toughens steels, especially at low temperatures. Does not form a carbide in steel. Renders high-chromium stainless steels austenitic Chromium (Cr) An essential alloying element in some low-alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... Their composition included 18% tungsten, 4.25% chromium, 1.10% vanadium, and 0.75% carbon ( Fig. 1.2 ). A similar high-speed steel available today is in the T-series of alloys. Its composition includes 18% tungsten, 4% chromium, 1% vanadium, and 0.75% carbon. A standard high-speed steel known as 18-4-1 is rated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... in which a high hardness must be maintained at a high temperature, such as tools for high-speed machining. High contents of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten in high-speed steels form very hard carbide precipitates when tempered at a high temperature. Figure 7.10 shows the effect of molybdenum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... Gledhill of England and Taylor himself had discussed the use of vanadium in 1904. With the addition of about 1% vanadium to the 18% tungsten, 4% chromium, and 0.60 to 0.80% carbon steel, the first truly universal high-speed steel was born ( FIG. 6.6 ). FIG. 6.6 Tools made with 18-4-1 high-speed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... in silicon content is limited to ensure proper annealing during a short-cycle, high-production annealing process and to avoid the formation of primary graphite (known as mottle) during solidification of the white iron. Manganese and sulfur contents are balanced to ensure that all sulfur is combined...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... the carbides at the grain boundaries, and careful observation at high magnification is required. Fig. 3.43 Microstructure of an AISI/SAE 316 stainless steel showing sensitization. Note the chromium carbides at the austenite grain boundaries. The steel was exposed to 675 °C (1250 °F) for 12 days. HCl/HNO...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... ) ° F = 1345 + 50.4   ( % Si ) − 45.0   ( % Mn ) Chromium raises the transformation range of gray iron. In high-nickel, high-silicon irons, for example, each percent of chromium raises the transformation range by about 40 °C (72 °F). Nickel, on the other hand, lowers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... for their ability to machine and cut materials at high speeds. They are complex iron-base alloys of carbon, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, or tungsten, or combinations thereof. In some cases they may contain substantial amounts of additional alloying elements such as cobalt. The carbon and alloy contents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...-solidified high-speed steel (AISI T1) that was cooled at 0.23 K/s from above liquidus. The peritectic envelopes of austenite (gray) around the highly branched dendrites of δ-ferrite (discontinuously transformed to austenite and carbide, dark) are clearly distinguishable. The matrix is fine ledeburite (white...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... required to produce martensite. Many tool steels have molybdenum, chromium, and manganese as alloying additions to improve hardenability. A high carbon content is required to obtain tempered martensite with a high hardness. In addition, wear resistance is enhanced by the presence of hard second-phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... temperatures Pack cementation diffusion treatments that involve the introduction of aluminum, chromium, or silicon into an alloy surface Surface modification by ion implantation, which involves the introduction of ionized species (virtually any element) into the substrate using a beam of high-velocity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of graphite. Thus, having manganese, chromium, molybdenum, or vanadium would favor the iron-cementite phase diagram, and silicon, aluminum, nickel, and copper would favor the iron-graphite phase diagram. Thus, proper control of these elements is essential if one desires a gray cast iron or a white cast iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... hard and very brittle, these irons are also hard and brittle. The high hardness produces very good wear resistance. Because cast irons can be made to freeze with the white structure at fast cooling rates, and gray iron at slower cooling rates, as illustrated in Fig. 16.3 , it is possible to make items...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
.... , Morphological Stability of γ/α Interface Formed by Carburisation in Fe-C-X Alloys , Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 25 , March 1994 , p 531 – 537 10.1007/BF02651594 2. Kuo K. , Carbides in Chromium, Molybdenum at Tungsten Steels , J. Iron Steel Inst. , April 1953 , p 363 – 375 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... of surfaces contacting slurries. Overall, nonhardened carbon steels are considered to have the lowest slurry erosion resistance; hardened alloy steels are better; and chromium tool steels (such as D2), such as 27% Cr white irons, have the best slurry erosion resistance. Steels are not widely used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... metal that produces a fully austenitic deposit, and the second was to solution anneal at 1065 °C (1950 °F) after welding to dissolve most of the ferrite. It would also help to select stainless steel base metal by composition (e.g., high nickel, low chromium content) to minimize the production of ferrite...