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high-chromium white iron

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... phase in these irons can be adjusted by alloy content and heat treatment to develop the proper balance between resistance to abrasion and the toughness needed to withstand repeated impact. All high-alloy white irons contain chromium to prevent formation of graphite on solidification and to ensure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... irons, which can also be classified as either white or graphitic irons ( Fig. 10.27 ). In gray and ductile irons, small amounts of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, or nickel are used primarily to achieve high strength or to ensure the attainment of a specified minimum strength in heavy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... versus hard metal (some piston rings are alloy white iron, some are hard steel, and some are chromium plated) for lubricated reciprocating sliding systems. Cast irons are not widely used for plain bearings involving high speed (over 10,000 rpm). This is the forte of rolling elements, but cast irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and/ or chromium can be added in combination with high silicon. The addition of nickel to gray iron improves its resistance to reducing acids and provides a high resistance to caustic alkalis. Chromium assists in forming a protective oxide that resists oxidizing acids, although it is of little benefit under...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Nickel (Ni) An essential alloying element in some steels. Added to increase solid-solution strength and hardness as well as to increase hardenability. Toughens steels, especially at low temperatures. Does not form a carbide in steel. Renders high-chromium stainless steels austenitic Chromium (Cr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... or corrosion by acids or corroding environments. The resistance of iron-chromium alloys to corrosion by certain acids was first recognized by the French metallurgist Pierre Berthier in 1821. However, the technology was not available in his time to produce alloys with a combination of low carbon and high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... in which a high hardness must be maintained at a high temperature, such as tools for high-speed machining. High contents of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten in high-speed steels form very hard carbide precipitates when tempered at a high temperature. Figure 7.10 shows the effect of molybdenum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... Gledhill of England and Taylor himself had discussed the use of vanadium in 1904. With the addition of about 1% vanadium to the 18% tungsten, 4% chromium, and 0.60 to 0.80% carbon steel, the first truly universal high-speed steel was born ( FIG. 6.6 ). FIG. 6.6 Tools made with 18-4-1 high-speed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... in silicon content is limited to ensure proper annealing during a short-cycle, high-production annealing process and to avoid the formation of primary graphite (known as mottle) during solidification of the white iron. Manganese and sulfur contents are balanced to ensure that all sulfur is combined...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...-working process, the steel is not at a high temperature long enough to diffuse substitutional alloying elements, such as manganese and chromium. The manganese and chromium atoms are of similar size to the iron atom and can only move about the lattice at high temperatures. To move a substantial distance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... ) ° F = 1345 + 50.4   ( % Si ) − 45.0   ( % Mn ) Chromium raises the transformation range of gray iron. In high-nickel, high-silicon irons, for example, each percent of chromium raises the transformation range by about 40 °C (72 °F). Nickel, on the other hand, lowers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... nitrided case depths Effective Case Depth The effective case depth of a nitrided gear tooth should be the depth below the tooth surface at which the minimum hardness of 50 HRC is met for aluminum and high-chromium steels. On the other hand, low-chromium steels do not develop surface hardnesses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... for their ability to machine and cut materials at high speeds. They are complex iron-base alloys of carbon, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, or tungsten, or combinations thereof. In some cases they may contain substantial amounts of additional alloying elements such as cobalt. The carbon and alloy contents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Source: Ref 6.10 as published in Ref 6.4 Iron-base alloys often consist of carbon with some other elements. Both chromium and nickel are substitutional alloying elements, while carbon is interstitially dissolved and has a very high diffusion rate. The other substitutional alloying elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... The following carbides are found in high-speed steels: MC, which is vanadium rich M 2 C, which is a tungsten- or molybdenum-rich carbide M 6 C, such as Fe 3 W 3 C and Fe 4 W 2 C, where chromium, vanadium, and cobalt dissolve in Fe 3 W 3 C M 23 C 6 , which is chromium rich and dissolves iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
..., and Their Alloys , Davis J.R. , Ed., ASM International , 2000 , p 281 – 290 25. Budinski K.G. , Surface Engineering for Wear Resistance , Prentice-Hall , 1988 , p 111 26. Smith B.J. and Marder A.R. , Characterization of Chromium Diffusion (Chromize) Coatings in a High...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and Co. , London , 1913 3. Howe H.M. , The Metallography of Steel and Cast Iron , McGraw-Hill , New York , 1916 4. Davenport E.S. and Bain E.C. , Trans. AIME , Vol 90 , 1930 , p. 117 – 144 . 5. Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... steels used in the United States fall in one of two groups: aluminum-containing Nitralloys and AISI low- or high-alloy steels. There is, however, a wide gap between the characteristics of these two groups of steels, which, in Europe, is filled by CrMo and CrMoV steels with 2.5 to 3.5% Cr. Chromium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... hard and very brittle, these irons are also hard and brittle. The high hardness produces very good wear resistance. Because cast irons can be made to freeze with the white structure at fast cooling rates, and gray iron at slower cooling rates, as illustrated in Fig. 16.3 , it is possible to make items...