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high-alloy white iron

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the production, properties, and uses of high-alloy white irons. It explains how the composition and melt are controlled to produce a large volume of eutectic carbides, making these irons particularly hard and resistant to wear, and how the metallic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten. Cast iron engine parts have long been made more wear resistant by alloying with silicon. Silicon additions also increase wear resistance of aluminum alloys. High-alloy white irons have improved wear resistance due to the presence of massive chromium carbides...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... than most steels, they are cheap, more readily cast than steels, and have other useful properties. With proper alloying, good foundry practice, and appropriate heat treatment, the properties of any cast iron can be varied over a wide range. Large tonnages of high-quality cast irons are produced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... . These alloys are at the high end of the abrasion resistance spectrum, and they have the advantage of being available as a welding consumable, so they are a cheap construction steel and have the extreme abrasion resistance of white iron alloyed with chromium. These hardfacings are widely used for tips...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... irons, which can also be classified as either white or graphitic irons ( Fig. 10.27 ). In gray and ductile irons, small amounts of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, or nickel are used primarily to achieve high strength or to ensure the attainment of a specified minimum strength in heavy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... (2110 to 2100 °F) but not Fe 3 C, and therefore, graphite is a more stable phase. Thus, in iron-carbon alloys, Fe 3 C is actually a metastable phase. On cooling pure, high-carbon austenite, the graphite phase can form at the higher temperatures (given by the A gr line) than can the Fe 3 C cementite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and alloy steels as well as the gray, white, ductile, and malleable cast irons, beginning with the steels. Steels Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels High-Alloy Steels Cast Irons Selected References Selected References • Davis J.R. , Ed., ASM Specialty Handbook: Cast Irons , ASM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... decomposes by either a pearlitic, bainitic, or martensitic transformation. An example of the structure observed after a martensitic transformation in a commercial alloyed white cast iron (called Ni-Hard) is shown in Fig. 2.54 . The martensite is plate martensite, due to its high carbon content...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... Properties and Selection—Irons, Steels and High-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , 10th ed. , ASM International , 1990 6. Creese R.C. and Healy G.W. , Metallurgical Thermodynamics and the Carbon Equivalent Expression , Metall. Trans. B , Vol 16B , 1985 , p 169 – 70...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... in silicon content is limited to ensure proper annealing during a short-cycle, high-production annealing process and to avoid the formation of primary graphite (known as mottle) during solidification of the white iron. Manganese and sulfur contents are balanced to ensure that all sulfur is combined...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., and High-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 , p 1 – 104 2. Davis J.R. , Ed., ASM Specialty Handbook: Cast Irons , ASM International , 1996 3. Oppenheimer H.N. , Heat Treatment of Cast Irons , Course 42, Lesson 4, Practical Heat Treating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... red. Later, with some refinement in alloy content, these would be called high-speed steels, and they would be said to possess “red hardness.” The discovery of high-speed steels, heat treated by the Taylor and White method, revolutionized the machine tool industry just when America was gearing up...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... on the tempering response. With 5% Mo, high hardnesses are maintained at 550 °C (1020 °F). Fig. 7.10 Secondary hardening in steels containing chromium and molybdenum. Source: Ref 7.2 Most steels contain 0.10% C or less with no alloying elements except some manganese and silicon. These steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... , Principles of Heat Treatment , 2nd ed. , ASM International , 1993 • Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.9781627081610 • Samuels L.E. , Optical Microscopy of Carbon Steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... in the world became obsolete. The machines did not have the capability needed to fully utilize the new alloy. Existing machine tools had to be redesigned to live with the stresses of high-speed metal removal. The Taylor-White steel was a modified version of a tungsten alloy invented by Mushet in 1868...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...-solidified high-speed steel (AISI T1) that was cooled at 0.23 K/s from above liquidus. The peritectic envelopes of austenite (gray) around the highly branched dendrites of δ-ferrite (discontinuously transformed to austenite and carbide, dark) are clearly distinguishable. The matrix is fine ledeburite (white...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... and sulfur. The carbon content of plain-carbon steels may be as high as 2.0%, but such an alloy is rarely found. Carbon content of commercial steels usually ranges from 0.05 to about 1.0%. The alloying mechanism for iron and carbon is different from the more common and numerous other alloy systems...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of a steel, and therefore a steel selected for induction hardening must have sufficient carbon content and alloying for the desired surface hardness distribution. Generally, medium- and high-carbon steels are selected because the high surface strengths and hardness attainable in these steels significantly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... against hard steel and well lubricated. Large bearings for lathes and the like are made from such copper alloys. For very high loads, as in aircraft landing gear, beryllium coppers such as ASTM International B194 alloy C17200 age hardened to 40 HRC are used lubricated against hard steel. If galling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... for their ability to machine and cut materials at high speeds. They are complex iron-base alloys of carbon, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, or tungsten, or combinations thereof. In some cases they may contain substantial amounts of additional alloying elements such as cobalt. The carbon and alloy contents...