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high energy density beam

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., or flakes. (e) When calibrated using special thickness gages. Source: Ref 1 Radiography can be used to inspect most types of solid material, with the possible exception of assemblies containing materials of very high or very low density. Neutron radiography, however, often can be used...
Image
Published: 01 November 2011
Fig. 1.7 25Cr-1Mo steel plate, single-pass electron beam weld. Macrostructure shows high depth-to-width ratio of the fusion zone, which is typical of high-energy-density welding processes. Source: Ref 1.3 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and ( T m ) 4 − ( T s ) 4 for first and fourth powers, respectively) and vaporization become important, with the second loss eventually overtaking the first loss. High beam densities increase the vapor density directly above the source, stimulating ionization in the vapor, which causes a loss...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... ( Ref 22.7 , 22.8 , 22.10 ). Welding and cutting require the highest power, and the ability to focus laser and electron beams makes possible very deep, narrow welds of high quality. This technology is highly developed and has followed the continuous development of high-energy density power sources...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... beam welding is a high-energy-density fusion process that is accomplished by bombarding the joint to be welded with an intense and strongly focused beam of electrons that have been accelerated up to velocities 0.3 to 0.7 times the speed of light at 25 to 200 kV, respectively. The instantaneous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... directions there is destructive interference (i.e., the combining waves are out of phase and there is no net energy exiting the atom). However, the atoms in a crystal are arranged in a regular pattern that forms an ordered array. In such an ordered array of atoms, there are planes of high atomic density (i.e...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and elemental analyses capabilities, has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize such subtle defects. In a transmission electron microscope, a high energy (80 to 300 keV) electron beam is transmitted through the thinned area of interest of the sample. During the transmission process, a variety of beam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... nm No EDS Overview X-rays are produced when a high energy electron beam enters a solid material. These x-rays are always created in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) regardless of whether an x-ray detector is present. To perform EDS, one can simply attach an x-ray detector to the SEM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses surface engineering treatments, including flame hardening, induction hardening, high-energy beam hardening, laser melting, and shot peening. It describes the basic implementation of each method, the materials for which they are suited, and their effect on surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in turn excites a photomultiplier. Exposure time is 1 to 2 minutes; a 4 mm (0.15 in.) aperture can reduce this time to 30 seconds at the expense of some resolution. The radiation source of the Gamma Densomat is Americium 241 (60 keV). For high energy beams, Cesium 137 (660 keV) can be substituted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... are coordinated such that traveling lattice waves are produced that have short wavelengths and high frequencies and propagate through the crystalline lattice at the speed of sound. Vibrational thermal energy consists of a series of these waves, which have a range of distributions and frequencies. Only certain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This chapter begins with an overview...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... being analyzed. Static SIMS is not the focus of this section since focused ion beams are not used for such analysis. In contrast, dynamic SIMS employs primary ions with high current densities for analyzing and sputtering simultaneously. Modern FIBs are ideally suited for performing dynamic SIMS...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Variation in secondary electron emission leading to topography contrast. A significant fraction of the incident electrons may be scattered backwards and leave the sample with high energy, in some cases close to the original beam energy. These backscattered electrons tend to originate deeper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... ). Welding and cutting technologies are highly developed and have followed the continuous development of high-energy density power sources ( Ref 55 , 56 ). Of the laser and electron beam surface modification techniques, localized surface hardening is the most widely developed and applied. Fig. 16-15...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... ( Fig. 4 ). These electrons are the signal used to generate high-resolution images in the SEM. They can be generated by the primary electron beam or any scattered electron that passes near the surface. Comparison of Fig. 4(a) and (b) illustrates that the energies of the secondary and Auger electrons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in absorption of a few percent compared with the surrounding material can be detected. Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... application at minimum capital investment. If production volume is large, the high capital investment required for LBW and EBW systems can be acceptable, based on higher welding rates and improved productivity. For titanium plate thickness exceeding about 5 mm (0.20 in.), the high-energy density processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... in a loss of definition. The radiographs are viewed as negatives. The highest contrast is attained at image densities of the order of 3.0 on a log scale and, therefore, the radiographs can only be viewed in high-intensity transmitted light. If the image can be viewed with the film held up in front...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... on the events that are contributing to sintering densification, followed by a discussion on the driving forces, such as surface energy, and high-temperature atomic motion as well as the factors affecting these processes. The process of microstructure evolution in sintering is then described, followed...