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heterogeneous nucleation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... explains how steel shrinks as it solidifies, causing issues such as pipe and voids, and how differences in the solubility of solid and liquid steel lead to compositional heterogeneities or segregation. It describes the dendritic nature of solidification, peritectic and eutectic reactions, microporosity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... heterogeneities that make steam bubble nucleation very easy at the water–pan interface. In this case overheating cannot be observed because there is no nucleation barrier. When water is heated in a microwave oven that does not heat the ceramic or glass cup, it is possible to create conditions to reach overheated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the structures, phases, and phase transformations observed in metals and alloys as they solidify and cool to lower temperatures. It begins with a review of the solidification process, covering nucleation, grain growth, and the factors that influence grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the processes involved in alloy production, including melting, casting, solidification, and fabrication. It discusses the effects of alloying on solidification, the formation of solidification structures, supercooling, nucleation, and grain growth. It describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... process. Fig. 4.4 Nucleation and growth during solidification Nucleation can occur by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Homogeneous nucleation occurs when nucleation takes place throughout the bulk of the liquid without preference for any point; that is, the probability of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... precipitate that forms important, but also the distribution of the precipitates. Distribution of precipitates influences mechanical strength by affecting dislocation motion. Nucleation can occur either homogenously (uniformly and nonpreferentially) or heterogeneously (preferentially) at specific sites...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...: Ref 2.2 Nucleation can occur by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Homogenous nucleation occurs when nucleation takes place throughout the bulk of the liquid without preference for any point; that is, the probability of nucleation is the same everywhere within the volume of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Aluminum Alloys , B. Mater. Sci. , Vol 24 , 2001 , p 345 – 353 10.1007/BF02708630 28. Murty B.S. , Kori S.A. , and Chakraborty M. , Grain Refinement of Aluminium and Its Alloys by Heterogeneous Nucleation and Alloying , Int. Mater. Rev. , Vol 47 ( No. 1 ), 2002 , p 3 – 29...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... equilibrium to be established during cooling. If the solidified alloy is subjected to a homogenization heat treatment followed by hot working, the diffusion process is accelerated and equilibrium may be established. The classical description of peritectic reactions postulates heterogeneous nucleation of β...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... eutectic is mainly heterogeneously nucleated on various substrates such as graphite (that may be already present in the liquid), ferro-silicon alloy, oxides, nitrides, and calcium silicide ( Ref 19 ). Nucleation has a critical role in defining the shape and amount of graphite formed, and the use of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... discontinuous precipitation, the second phase nucleates at the grain boundary, which then moves with the advancing precipitation reaction. It typically starts at a high-angle incoherent boundary, which is the most likely point to support the process of heterogeneous nucleation and boundary migration. Misfit or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Pearlite nucleation occurs when either ferrite or cementite nucleates on a heterogeneity in the parent structure, such as the austenite (or parent phase) grain boundaries or grain-boundary triple points. The selection of which phase nucleates is determined by the orientation and local composition. For the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... dirt, broken refractory brickwork, and ceramic lining particles. They are generally large and irregularly-shaped. They may act as sites for heterogeneous nucleation of alumina. Chemical reactions, for example, produce oxides from inclusion modification when Ca treatment is improperly performed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... to cause heterogeneous nucleation at the weld pool centerline; and (c) high heat input and high welding speed with heterogeneous nucleation at the weld pool centerline. Source: Ref 5.3 Depending on the cooling conditions, a number of solidification structures are possible ( Fig. 5.6a to e...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
.... Fig. 1 Typical sigmoidal recrystallization curve during annealing There are many modes of isothermal precipitation reactions in alloys that include both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of new phases. However, the process of strengthening by precipitation hardening has two basic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... produced early in the freezing of the melt may provide sites for the heterogeneous nucleation of magnesium grains during solidification. Zirconium is added to alloys containing zinc, rare earths, thorium, or a combination of these elements, where it serves as a grain refiner (up to its limit of solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... determined by the detailed physical and thermal history of the material. Oxygen remaining in the steel may then diffuse most rapidly along the grain boundaries, thus oxidizing the aluminum to form particles of alumina. This fine dispersion of alumina might then provide the sites for heterogeneous nucleation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...%. During heat treatment, cementite particles nucleate in structural heterogeneities and grow by the diffusion of carbon to these nuclei. Because the carbon concentration in cementite is high, a significant movement of carbon in the steel is needed to make sure cementite will form and grow. The Fe-C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Behavior of Alloy 2090—The Role of Microstructural Heterogeneity , Corrosion , Vol 46 ( No. 8 ), 1990 , p 610 – 617 10.5006/1.3585156 4. Baeslack III W.A. , Lippold J.C. , and Savage W.F. , Unmixed Zone Formation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weldments , Weld. J. , Vol 58...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... promote diffusion. This enhances the reduction of chemical heterogeneities caused by solidification segregation in the ingot. Furthermore, small pores and cavities naturally occurring during the solidification processes may be eliminated by “forge welding” as long as an adequate stress state is present...