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heat-transfer equations

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the factors that influence temperature in forging operations and presents equations that can be used to predict and control it. The discussion covers heat generation and transfer, the effect of metal flow, temperature measurement, testing methods, and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... lower thermal diffusivity, and there are difficulties in homogenizing temperature during heat treatments. Heat transfer by convection occurs between the surface of the body and surrounding fluids; for this type of heat transmission, the following Newton’s equation is in general use: (Eq 4) Q...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... during extrusion is a complex one, and it becomes difficult, if not impossible, to get a complete analytical solution of the differential equation of heat transfer. The temperature increase and temperature distribution during extrusion have been investigated by many researchers ( Ref 1 – 5 ) since 1960...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... electroanalytical methods, Ref 1 is recommended. For a broader study of corrosion, the reader is referred to texts by Jones ( Ref 2 ), Uhlig and Revie ( Ref 3 ), and Fontana ( Ref 4 ) and to ASM Handbook , Volume 13A ( Ref 5 ). In electrochemical reactions, charge is transferred across interfaces of species...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... This chapter describes the conditions that must be met for martensite to form. It discusses the role of quenching and the factors that affect cooling rate, including heat transfer, thermal diffusivity, emissivity, and section size. It defines hardenability and explains how to quantify it using the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter presents a relatively simple method for estimating forging loads and flow stresses. The method uses the slab analysis technique and accounts for material properties, friction and heat transfer, press ram speed, forging geometry, and billet and die temperatures. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... depends on the viscosity as predicted from the viscosity submodel, which in turn is dependent on the resin kinetics (kinetics submodel), which in turn is dependent on heat (heat transfer submodel). When using any model, it is important to understand (1) the mathematics of the equations that make up the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... area, and c p is the heat capacity of the specimen. The heat-transfer coefficient, α, is calculated at a particular time, t , from the aforementioned equation, and the corresponding contact pressure is measured from the experiment. The contact pressure ranges from 0 to 40 MPa (0 to 6 ksi...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... analyses, heat-transfer equations, and other engineering principles) must define the worst-case internal temperatures and apply these temperature requirements when procuring the electrical components and circuit card assemblies. Similarly, engineers may design a hydraulic system to operate at 3000 psi...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... method allows the user to incorporate in the simulation: (a) the tool and workpiece temperatures, (b) the heat transfer during deformation, (c) strain-rate-dependent material properties, (d) strain hardening characteristics, and (e) capabilities for microstructure analysis. This results in a more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... the single-shot heating as shown in Table 11.8 because the encircling coils used for scanning are more efficient than single-shot coils. The same output power, 40 kW on the 450 kHz power supply is used to operate alternately through use of a power transfer switch to two heating fixtures. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... heating and quenching Low dew points Manual transfer of parts Limited effective hearth area Poor use of space Headroom requirements Integral quench (IQ) furnaces 540–1120 1000–2050 Flexibility Transfer of work to quench under protective atmospheres Work not carburized and scale free Low capital...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... wear and friction phenomena are influenced mainly by the shear and adhesive properties of the transferred film. Reprinted with permission from Ref 1 A distinction within the interfacial wear process may be made based on whether or not the frictional heat dissipation is isothermal or quasi...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... hardened. The cam shaft was forged, heat treated, then final ground. No premachining was necessary. The equipment used a dual-spindle transfer mechanism; the coil was a four-turn coil that heated four lobes per spindle at a time. Power was applied for each set of four lobes: 150 kW, 10 kHz. The result is a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... using corrections factors for flow distances and number of turns. Reference 1 provides the compensating factors. The liquid metal injected into the die cavity transfers sensible heat and latent heat to the die. The interface between the die and the solidifying metal offers some resistance to the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of these materials when they undergo cyclic testing. Thus, some of this inelastic deformation energy is transferred into heat. With each cycle, heat buildup raises the temperature of the specimen. A plastic material heating up in fatigue will display either thermal stability or instability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... Typical batch loads run at heat from 1 to 2 h. Finally, induction tempering requires sufficient time for heat transfer in the workpiece, so that the entire hardened area is heated to tempering temperature. Typical tempering times for induction tempering may run from 10 to 20 s. Fig. 7.4 Effect of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... The transformation temperatures are often referred to as critical temperatures and are observed by measuring changes in heat transfer or volume as specimens are heated or cooled. On heating, heat is absorbed and specimen contraction occurs as ferrite and cementite are replaced by the close-packed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... feed rate, and length of the prechamber Modeling of in-flight history of particles is largely based on computational fluid dynamics, including the heat transfer between gas and particle. It normally starts with the evaluation of the state of process gas at any given point within a convergent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... most dominant form of heat transfer, and so the heat-transfer coefficient for conduction becomes paramount. Using the correct value of the heat-transfer coefficient can be very crucial in predicting accurate thermal gradients and forces over the workpiece. Experiments were conducted to calculate...