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hardness

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... discussed. In addition, the article provides information on the hardenability limits of H-steels after a note on hardenability correlation curves and Jominy equivalence charts. hardenability hardenability curves hardness Jominy end-quench test Jominy equivalence chart steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
.... Tempering of as-quenched martensite The tempering process involves heating steel to any temperature below the Ac 1 temperature. The objective of tempering is to reduce hardness to a desired level and then stop the carbide decomposition by cooling. Direct hardening of steel involves the two-step...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... transformation with continuous cooling. With different cooling rates ( Fig. 1b ), the “critical cooling rate” is the minimum rate needed to produce 100% martensite. Cooling at rates faster than the critical cooling rate will not result in any increase in hardness and may cause cracking. Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... appreciable hardness and ability to cut. Tools such as twist drills and countersinks, milling cutters, turning tools, boring tools, broaches, and saw blades are just a few examples of such applications. The tool steels used for cutting tool applications are usually heat treated to very high hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... hardness and strength Through hardening: heating, quenching, and tempering to provide the highest possible hardness and strength Surface hardening: flame, induction, or laser heating the surface of a casting to increase its wear resistance Most iron-casting producers would like to produce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-temperature and large-section toughness. They are called ferritic alloys because they remain ferritic at all temperatures and thus cannot be hardened by heating and quenching. They are heat treated for annealing, to reduce excess hardness from cold working. In some cases they can also be heat treated for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... most frequently used steel. Carbon is the main factor affecting the hardness and mechanical properties of steel, and carbon content increases the hardness (strength) for all types of microstructures, with martensitic microstructures having the greatest hardness. ( Fig. 1 ). Hardness increases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... move about in solid metals and alloys may be a hard sell, but it is absolutely true. Atoms in a solid are constantly vibrating due to their thermal motion. Although it may be difficult to imagine, diffusion allows them to migrate to different locations within a crystal lattice. The vibrating atom may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... and distribution, contributes in a variety of ways to the strengthening, deformation, and fracture of steels. Cementite is very hard, ranging in hardness from 800 to 1400 HV, depending on the substitution of elements for iron. Heat treatment also can alter the amount, shape, and distribution of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... (0.04 in.) with air cooling. Hardenability is thus apparent in CCT diagrams and related to the cooling rates on Jominy end-quench test specimens ( Fig. 8 ). Positions along the Jominy bar are equivalent to cooling rates and can be expressed as equivalent bar diameters (see Chapter 4, “Hardness and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... temperature below the lower heating critical temperature ( Ac 1 ) and held at temperature long enough (usually relatively short) to produce the desired effect and then cooled by any suitable and convenient means. Table 2 illustrates the effect of time and temperature on hardness of a medium-carbon low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... primarily used for the purpose of increasing hardness, yield strength, and/or tensile strength. Eutectoid transformations, which form the basis of a number of steel heat treatment practices, are much less common in the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. Eutectoid transformations do occur in various...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This appendix is a collection of tables listing examples of published hardness conversion equations, approximate Rockwell B and C hardness conversion numbers for nonaustenitic steels, and equivalent hardness numbers for Brinell hardness numbers and Vickers (diamond pyramid) hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.9781627082983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... mechanical properties listed include yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and hardness. stainless steel density modulus of elasticity coefficient of thermal expansion thermal conductivity specific heat electrical resistivity yield strength tensile strength elongation hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract This chapter addresses the concept of hardenability by first describing the basic hardening process for steel, starting with austenitization followed by quenching and tempering. The context also serves to clarify the difference between hardenability and hardness, which are often...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the general principles of measuring hardness and hardenability of steel. The discussion begins by defining hardness and exploring the history of hardness testing. This is followed by a discussion on the principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., giving it distinct advantages in a number of applications. The article also discusses the role of melt treatment elements and explains how alloying and heat treatment affect tensile strength, hardness, toughness, and ductility. compacted graphite iron Composition Compacted graphite...