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hardenable steels

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract The design requirements for mechanical shafts, pinions, and gears often call for features with very hard surfaces (to resist wear) based on a softer core (to avoid brittle fracture). This chapter explains how to selectively harden steel by diffusing carbon and nitrogen atoms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the concept of hardenability by first describing the basic hardening process for steel, starting with austenitization followed by quenching and tempering. The context also serves to clarify the difference between hardenability and hardness, which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...Austenitizing temperatures for direct hardening carbon and alloy steels Table 1 Austenitizing temperatures for direct hardening carbon and alloy steels Steel, AISI, SAE UNS number Temperature °C °F Carbon steels 1025 G10250 860–900 1575–1650 1026 G10260 860–885...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... … 0.35–0.40 1.2–1.3 … Good 61 200 0.05 0.40–0.60 1.4–2.0 … Strong 230 750 … 0.60–0.80 1.6–2.0 4.0 Fig. 4 Plot of end-quench test results for five different steels Fig. 3 Jominy end-quench hardenability test. (a) Standard end-quench test specimen, (b) specimen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... and operating considerations for each treatment are discussed. References References 1. Davis J.R. , Ed., Process Selection Guide , Surface Hardening of Steels: Understanding the Basics , ASM International , 2002 , p 1 – 15 2. Stanescu M.S. et al. , Control of Surface Carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the process characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of various processes involved in surface hardening of steel. These include pack carburizing, liquid carburizing, gas carburizing, vacuum carburizing, plasma carburizing, gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... 5 Fig. 2 Typical microstructures of precipitation-hardenable (PH) stainless steels: (a) 15-5PH as-quenched martensite; (b) 13-8 PH solution treated and aged displaying fine martensite; (c) 17-7 PH displaying ferrite stringers in a martensite matrix; (d) 17-7 PH showing residual ferrite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract Quenching is a critical step in the production of hardened steel. This chapter untangles some of the complexities of the quenching process and its effect on the microstructure and properties of various steels. Making extensive use of cooling curves, it sheds light...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the general principles of measuring hardness and hardenability of steel. The discussion begins by defining hardness and exploring the history of hardness testing. This is followed by a discussion on the principles, applications, advantages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... and the solid-state transformations of the main classes of metals and alloys during fusion welding. The main classes include work- or strain-hardened metals and alloys, precipitation-hardened alloys, transformation-hardened steels and cast irons, stainless steels, and solid-solution and dispersion-hardened...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract One of the primary advantages of steels is their ability to attain high strengths through heat treatment while still retaining some degree of ductility. Heat treatments can be used to not only harden steels but also to provide other useful combinations of properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the classification, composition, properties, and applications of five types of stainless steels: austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening steels. It discusses the process involved in argon oxygen decarburization that is used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...) 425 (800) 480 (900) 540 (1000) 595 (1100) 650 (1200) Carbon steels, water hardening 1030 0.30 50 45 43 39 31 28 25 22 95 (a) Normalized at 900 °C (1650 °F); water quenched from 830 to 845 °C (1525 to 1550 °F); average dew point, 16 °C (60 °F) 1040 0.40 51 48 46 42 37...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
...; austenite retention minimized Refined; soft and machinable; high degree of toughness and resistance to impact E: Suitable for fine-grained steels only Unrefined with excess carbide dissolved; austenite retained; distortion minimized Unrefined but hardened F: Suitable for fine-grained steels only...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes important requirements for ferrous and nonferrous alloys used for gears. Wrought surface-hardening and through-hardening carbon and alloy steels are the most widely used of all gear materials and are emphasized in this chapter. The processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... are 30–50 °C (55–90 °F) above Ac 3 for hypoeutectoid steels and 30–50 °C (55–90 °F) above Ac 1 for hypereutectoid steels. Quenching Quench severity (rate of cooling) depends on the required depth of hardening and the hardenability of the steel. Specific recommendations for quench media...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... for carburized steels but not for the four nitrided steels. Relative radius of curvature, 2/3. SH units = lb/in. of face width divided by the relative radius of curvature. Process Predicted fatigue limit, SH Actual fatigue limit, SH Carbon case hardened, untempered 24,000 18,000 Tempered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., the compressive surface stresses produced by carburizing or shot peening; others are detrimental, for example, surface tensile stresses introduced by quenching of through-hardening steels. Such tensile stresses reduce fracture and fatigue resistance. This chapter describes the origin of residual stresses and some...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Mechanical components often require surface treatments to meet application demands. This chapter describes several surface hardening treatments for steel and their effect on microstructure, composition, and properties. It discusses flame hardening, induction heating, carburizing, nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
.... Source: Ref 55 Fig. 6.26 Charpy V notch toughness tests that relate hardness, carbon content, and toughness. Source: Ref 28 Fig. 6.31 Effect of surface carbon content on the resistance to pitting fatigue of a case-hardened alloy steel. The samples were fully austenitized prior...