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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... … 0.35–0.40 1.2–1.3 … Good 61 200 0.05 0.40–0.60 1.4–2.0 … Strong 230 750 … 0.60–0.80 1.6–2.0 4.0 Fig. 4 Plot of end-quench test results for five different steels Fig. 3 Jominy end-quench hardenability test. (a) Standard end-quench test specimen, (b) specimen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...). Austenitize, 845 °C (1550 °F). Source: Ref 1 Fig. A6.8 Heat-treating temperatures recommended by SAE. Normalize (for forged or rolled specimens only), 925 °C (1700 °F). Austenitize, 925 °C (1700 °F). Source: Ref 1 Fig. A6.9 E52100 end-quench hardenability, austenitized at 845 °C (1550...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...Abstract Abstract The properties of martensite and the mechanisms that govern its formation are the key to understanding hardness and the hardenability of carbon steel. Martensite is a transformation product of austenite that requires rapid cooling to suppress diffusion-dependent transformation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the concept of hardenability by first describing the basic hardening process for steel, starting with austenitization followed by quenching and tempering. The context also serves to clarify the difference between hardenability and hardness, which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...Hardenabilities (stated as a range of <italic>D</italic><sub>I</sub> values) for various steels Table 4 Hardenabilities (stated as a range of D I values) for various steels Steel D I 1045 0.9–1.3 1090 1.2–1.6 1320H 1.4–2.5 1330H 1.9–2.7 1335H 2.0–2.8 1340H...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... 0.44 58 0.57 62 0.19 44 0.32 51 0.45 58 0.58 62 0.20 44 0.33 52 0.46 59 0.59 62 0.21 45 0.34 53 0.47 59 0.60 62 0.22 45 0.35 53 0.48 59 (After L.C. Boyd and J. Field, as given in C.A. Siebert, D.V. Doane and D.H. Breen, The Hardenability of steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the method for calculating hardenability from composition. It contains tables listing multiplying factors, carbon content, initial hardness, and 50% martensite hardness. The tables also list Jominy distance for 50% martensite vs. DI (in. and mm), boron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the processes involved in heat treatment of carbon and low alloy steel, high strength low alloy steels, austenitic manganese steels, martensitic stainless steels, and austenitic stainless steels. In addition, precipitation hardening and quench hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
...Abstract Abstract This appendix lists the readings of specified hardness limits for H-steels, along with graphs showing the distance from the quenched surface against hardness values. This appendix is a series of tables and graphs giving hardenability bands for H-steels. Reprinted from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Precipitation hardening is used extensively to strengthen aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel-base superalloys, beryllium-copper alloys, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This chapter discusses two types of particle strengthening: precipitation hardening...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...Typical operating conditions for progressive through hardening of steel parts by induction Table A2.1 Typical operating conditions for progressive through hardening of steel parts by induction Section size Material Frequency (a) , Hz Power (b) , kW Total heating time, s Scan time...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Mechanical components often require surface treatments to meet application demands. This chapter describes several surface hardening treatments for steel and their effect on microstructure, composition, and properties. It discusses flame hardening, induction heating, carburizing, nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Suitable steels for induction surface hardening Table 1 Suitable steels for induction surface hardening Type of steel Chemical composition % C Si Mn P, max S, max Cr Mo Ni 1 0.33–0.39 0.15–0.40 0.50–0.80 0.035 0.035 … … … 2 0.38–0.44 0.15–0.40 0.50–0.80...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...Abstract Abstract The through-hardening process is generally used for gears that do not require high surface hardness. Four different methods of heat treatment are primarily used for through-hardened gears. In ascending order of achievable hardness, these methods are annealing, normalizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the process characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of various processes involved in surface hardening of steel. These include pack carburizing, liquid carburizing, gas carburizing, vacuum carburizing, plasma carburizing, gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...Typical characteristics of case hardening treatments Table 1 Typical characteristics of case hardening treatments Process Nature of case Process temperature, °C (°F) Typical case depth Case hardness, HRC Carburizing Pack Diffused carbon 815–1090 (1500–2000) 125 μm–1.5 mm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...Minimum hardness depths for production work in surface hardening Table 2 Minimum hardness depths for production work in surface hardening Frequency, Hz Hardness depth (a) , in. Penetration of electrical energy (b) , in. 3,000 0.060 0.035 10,000 0.040 0.020 450,000 0.020...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...Austenitizing temperatures for direct hardening carbon and alloy steels Table 1 Austenitizing temperatures for direct hardening carbon and alloy steels Steel, AISI, SAE UNS number Temperature °C °F Carbon steels 1025 G10250 860–900 1575–1650 1026 G10260 860–885...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
...Abstract Abstract Through-hardening heat treatment is generally used for gears that do not require high surface hardness. In through hardening, gears are first heated to a required temperature and then cooled either in the furnace or quenched in air, gas, or liquid. Four heat treatment methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
...Abstract Abstract The primary objective of carburizing and hardening gears is to secure a hard case and a relatively soft but tough core. For this process, low-carbon steels (up to a maximum of approximately 0.30% carbon), either with or without alloying elements (nickel, chromium, manganese...