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hand lay-up

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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 1.21 Cost drivers for composite hand lay-up. NDI, nondestructive inspection More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... provide flotation. In general, foam cores should be sealed prior to lay-up to reduce excessive resin absorption. Since impregnation is done by hand, voids, resin-rich, and resin-starved areas can be a problem. Improvement in the impregnation consistency can be obtained by preimpregnating the reinforcement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... n n n y y     Prepreg 0.5–5 0.07–0.75 30 3370 6.0 65 y n n y n n n n y y     Vacuum bag 0.1 0.015 n/a n/a … … n n y y n y n n n y Hand lay-up 0 0 n/a n/a … … n n y y n y n n n y Injection     Powder 100 14.5 10 1120 0.1 1.1 y...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... that this process still requires collation of the ply packs or layers, usually a hand lay-up operation. Since the material contains no tack, soldering irons, heated to 800 to 1200 °F (425 to 650 °C), are frequently used to tack the edges to prevent the material from slipping. Handheld ultrasonic guns have also been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... using conventional hand lay-up is the cost of laying up or collating the plies. This cost is generally 40 to 60 percent of the fabrication cost, depending on part complexity ( Fig. 1.21 ). Assembly cost is another major cost driver, accounting for about 50 percent of the total part cost. As previously...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... occur. Composites are more difficult to repair than metallic structure. The major cost driver in fabrication for a conventional hand-layed-up composite part is the cost of laying-up or collating the plies. This cost generally consists of 40 to 60% of the fabrication cost, depending on part...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... can lower fabrication costs overall by reducing or eliminating hand lay-up costs. If structural efficiency and weight are important design parameters, continuous-reinforced product forms are normally used because discontinuous fibers yield lower mechanical properties. Some common trade-offs when...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... will be given. Three typical bonded repairs ( Fig. 19.11 ) are the bonded patch, the scarf repair, and the stepped-lap repair. The bonded patch repair can be accomplished using prepreg, wet lay-up, or thin titanium sheets bonded together with layers of adhesive. For structures requiring higher load-bearing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... but differing in fiber shape. (a) Cylindrical carbon fiber shape. Bright-field illumination, 50× objective. (b) Irregular bean-shaped fibers. Bright-field illumination, 25× objective Many methods are used to manufacture fiber-reinforced composites, including hand lay-up of prepreg materials, automated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... On the other hand, if the fiber will be used in a lay-up operation where drapablility and forming are important, then softness is a desirable property. Drying/Packaging Drawn, sized filaments are collected together into a bundle, forming a glass strand consisting of 51 to 1624 filaments. The strand...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.9781627083492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... rather than hand lay-up, spray-up, resin transfer mold, or compression mold their elbows, reducers, and tees. Filament winding these components results in better mechanical properties through the use of continuous fibers, with the accompanying lowering of manufacturing costs ( Ref 1.2 ). Composite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Spray-Up Spray-up is a low- to medium-volume, open-mold method similar to hand lay-up in its suitability for simple medium to large part sizes. However, greater shape complexity is possible with spray-up than with hand lay-up. Continuous-strand glass roving is fed through a combination chopper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... temperature. Because a thermoset resin sets up and cures during processing, it cannot be reprocessed by reheating. On the other hand, thermoplastics can be reheated above their melting temperature for additional processing. For both classes of resins, there are some processes that are more amenable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... because (1) thick laminates usually drive thick tools that exhibit very slow heat-up rates and (2) thick laminate parts are often made in matched metal tools. In order to get the lay-up to fit within these tools, the plies, or ply packs, either have to be hot debulked if the material is a net resin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... Used for wet or low-temperature lay-ups. Susceptible to attack by solvents. Polyurethane foam 3–29 250–350 Low- to high-density closed cell foam capable of thermoforming at 425–450 °F. Both thermoplastic and thermoset foams are available. Used for cocured and secondarily bonded sandwich panels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... parameters, and control of the adhesive lay-up, part fit-up, tooling, and the curing process are all required to produce durable structural assemblies. 8.2.1 Composite Surface Preparation Moisture absorption of the laminate is the first consideration in preparing a composite part for secondary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... into the topic of advanced programming techniques and software for CNC filament winding machines, it is worthwhile to reflect on the evolution of winding machines, which has gone hand-in-hand with the evolution of the art of product realization methods. The earliest filament winding machines were purely...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...-32Ni-0.5Al-0.5Ti) in air at 980 °C (1800 °F) for about 2 years (720 days), Harper et al. ( Ref 21 ) observed Widmanstätten acicular chromium-rich nitrides along with aluminum nitrides that formed below chromium-rich oxides. Lai ( Ref 22 ) observed internal aluminum nitrides (needle shape) that formed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... be analyzed based on energy dissipation. It describes the stick-slip behavior observed in wiper blades, the concept of asperities, and the significance of the shape, lay, roughness, and waviness of surfaces in sliding contact. It explains how friction forces are measured and how they are influenced by speed...