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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the design and operation of forging presses and hammers. It covers the most common types of presses, including hydraulic, mechanical, and screw presses, explaining how they work and comparing and contrasting their load and displacement profiles, stroke...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... hammer method, the shearing force method, the Baumann hammer method, and the Dynatest method. Methods that measure energy include the Shore method, the Leeb method, and the Nitronic method. The chapter concludes with a discussion of applications of dynamic hardness testing. dynamic hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes sheet metal forming operations, including cutting, blanking, piercing, and bending as well as deep drawing, spinning, press-brake and stretch forming, fluid forming, and drop hammer and electromagnetic forming. It also discusses the selection and use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... is maximum for 871 °C (1600 °F). These are accumulated times to include heating times for single or multirange forming, intermediate stress relief, and final stress relief. (b) A = drop hammer; B = hydropress; C = brake; D = spin; E = draw; F = matched die; G = hydroform; H = finish die; I = creep form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Abstract Abstract The discovery and use of materials have shaped civilization since ancient times. This chapter traces the history of the use of metals from hammered copper estimated to be 11,000 years old to the development of electrolytically refined aluminum in 1884. The discussion covers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., lubricants are used to minimize friction. Lubricants also reduce die wear, help in providing temperature control, and minimize high-temperature oxidation of the workpiece. Hot Working Cold Working Forging Hammers and Presses Die Design and Materials Die Steels Friction and Lubrication...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... , Vol 55 , 1965 , p 509 . [Kienzle, 1953] Kienzle O. , The Characteristic Data on Presses and Hammers (in German) , Werkst. Maschin. , Vol 43 , 1953 , p 1 . Selected References Selected References [Altan et al., 1983] Altan T. , Oh S.I. , Gegel H. , Metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... in the Hammer Forging of an Incoloy 901 Disk, ” Annals of the CIRP , Vol. 42/1 , 1993 , p 343 – 346 . 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)62458-5 [Shen et al., 2000] Shen G. , “ Microstructure Modeling of Forged Components of Ingot Metallurgy Nickel Based Superalloys, ” Advanced Technologies for Superalloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Superalloys ,” Advanced Technologies for Superalloy Affordability , Chang K.M. et al. , Ed., The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society . [Shen et al., 2001] Shen G. , et al. , “ Advances in the State-of-the-Art of Hammer Forged Alloy 718 Aerospace Components ,” Superalloys 718, 625...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... or a few strokes of a press or hammer. As a result, forging offers potential savings in energy and material, especially in medium and large production quantities, where tool costs can be easily amortized. In addition, for a given weight, parts produced by forging exhibit better mechanical and metallurgical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... The Scleroscope hardness test is essentially a dynamic indentation hardness test, wherein a diamond tipped hammer is dropped from a fixed height onto the surface of the material being tested. The height of rebound of the hammer is a measure of the hardness of the metal. The Scleroscope scale consists of units...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
..., and piercing Deep Drawing ( Section 2.6 ) Deep drawing (using hard dies) Sheet hydroforming with punch Sheet hydroforming with die Fluid bladder (diaphragm) forming Marform process Drop hammer forming Hot stamping Stretch Forming ( Section 2.7 ) Stretch forming...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... forging can be carried out by using a single pair of dies or with multiple impression dies. Hammers or presses are used to apply the forces to the workpiece, which is usually heated to above its recrystallization temperature, although cold forging is also used to produce finished shapes. Fig. 16.10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... practices, or design. Cracks can also result from seams in the forging stock. The likelihood that any of the listed discontinuities will appear in a closed-die forging produced in a press or by upsetting is more prevalent than for hammer forgings, because press and upset forgings permit no opportunity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... in high-speed equipment such as mechanical press, screw press, and hammer. A part of generated heat remains in the deformed material, another part flows into the undeformed/less-deformed portion of the material where temperature is lower, while still an additional part may flow into the tooling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of dies in order to permanently change its physical dimensions or geometry. Large forgings are processed by primary mills, but forgers also purchase wrought products in the forms of bars, billets, or blooms for subsequent forging on hammers and presses. The goal of most forging operations is to produce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... in./min). Double these pressures for hammer forgings. (d) ELI, extra low interstitial. (e) Known as Beta-C Typical tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V rolled ring Table 10.2 Typical tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V rolled ring 0.2% yield strength Tensile strength Elongation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... ). A man was trying to split logs of wood using steel wedges and striking them with a sledgehammer ( Ref 2 ). While striking for the second time, suddenly a chip from the wedge flew into his eye, and he eventually lost his eye. Litigation followed against the supplier of the hammer and the wedges. The case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2