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half-cell reaction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter lays the groundwork for understanding electrode kinetics associated with corrosion. It presents a simple but useful theory relating kinetics to the polarization behavior of half-cell reactions. The theory is based on the observation that electrode potentials vary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... corrosion rate current density electrode half-cell reaction polarization If two or more electrochemical half-cell reactions can occur simultaneously at a metal surface, the metal acts as a mixed electrode and exhibits a potential relative to a reference electrode that is a function...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... how energies of formation are determined using the oxidation of iron as an example. It then considers how iron reacts with hydrochloric acid, explaining how it can be expressed as two half reactions modeled as electrodes in an electrochemical cell. It goes on to describe the chemical reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of polarization in an electrochemical cell. As described in the second half of this chapter (see the section “ The Kinetics of Aqueous Corrosion ”), these concepts include anodic and cathodic reactions, the mixed-potential theory, and the exchange currents. The Thermodynamics of Aqueous Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... on the form of the polarization curve, which results from the polarization curves for the individual anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions occurring on the metal surface. These individual polarization curves, assuming Tafel behavior in all cases, are shown in Fig. 6.2 (dashed curves) with E corr...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... 12.1 Table 12.1 shows the electromotive series. It gives the electrode potentials for various possible half reactions for solutions with 1 molar concentration. Electromotive series Table 12.1 Electromotive series Anode half-cell reaction (the arrows are reversed for the cathode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... as half cells , for example, and Fe/O 2 /OH − and Fe/Fe 2+ . If the cell in Fig. 1(a) was allowed to proceed and thermodynamics favored to proceed according to the direction in Reaction 1, then a current i will flow from the anode to the cathode, and the amount of charge passed per unit time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... or electrons). These limiting potentials are referred to as equilibrium half-cell potentials , and when conditions of concentration and temperature are standardized, they characterize the standard equilibrium half-cell reactions to which they relate. Equations 1.16 and 1.17 , therefore, indicate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... minimum current density of the passive state is i p = 1 mA/m 2 . Fig. 5.4 Representative polarization curve for iron in buffered solution of pH = 7. Dashed curve extends to the half-cell potential of iron with a Fe 2+ = 10 –6 . Letters along curves relate to reactions (details can be found...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... as follows: 2 H + e − → H 2 Each reaction is referred to as a half-cell reaction. The standard potential for a half-cell is given with reference to a standard hydrogen electrode (H 2 /H + ) taken as zero potential. The standard conditions are a one molar (1 M ) aqueous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the half-cell potentials, and the electrode states are then defined as being polarized . The polarization is quantified as overpotentials η, which are defined by the deviation from the equilibrium half-cell potentials, that is, for the cathode, η c = E cathode − E O2/OH and for the anode, η...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and 800,000 [ Infante and Newman 2004 ]. The exposure to beryllium can lead to the more-common chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and/or to beryllium sensitization. (Sensitization is not a disease; it is a reaction similar to a chronic allergy in which white blood cells in the blood or lungs react...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... precipitation : Where solid deposition occurs from a solution in an electrolytic cell to form a dendritic or spongelike particle; usually pure transition metal elements, such as silver, gold, copper, platinum, chromium, palladium, and nickel Thermochemical reaction: Including routes such as precipitation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... − → Fe ( OH ) 2 + 2 HCl which has several consequences: (a) Hydrochloric acid further acidifies the pit and increases the rate of iron dissolution since decreasing pH increases cathode half-cell potential, which increases corrosion rate (see polarization diagram construction in Chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and immersed in an electrolyte. The electrode potential, measured in volts, provides an electrical measure of a metal to give up electrons. Electrode potentials are measured with two half-cells: one for the corroding metal and the other for a standard hydrogen half-cell consisting of gaseous hydrogen (H...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Electrolytic Extraction of Beryllium 7.9 Cell Configuration 7.10 Theoretical Rate Expression 7.11 Electrorefining of Beryllium References References Bayliss R.K. , and Derry R. , 1963 . “ Further Studies of the Breakdown of Beryl and Beryl Concentrates by Fusion Methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... is characterized by the unit cell shown in Fig. 3.2 . Ferrite belongs to the cubic crystal system—all three axes of the unit cell are of the same length a and are mutually perpendicular. The space lattice of ferrite is body-centered cubic (bcc). There are a total of two atoms per unit cell: the body-centered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... go into solution as metal ions and weight loss occurs. The direct current going through the corrosion cell enters the solution at the anode. The reactions at the anode are referred to as anodic and are oxidation reactions; that is, electrons are generated. At the cathode , no corrosion occurs...