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hafnium alloys

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix provides a list of etch compositions and procedures that reveal the macrostructure of aluminum, beryllium, bismuth, antimony, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, nickel, tin, titanium, zinc, and their respective alloys as well as iron, steel, noble metals, refractory metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the compositions, properties, and applications of nonferrous metals, including zirconium, hafnium, beryllium, lead, tin, gold, silver, and platinum group metals. It also addresses fusible alloys and provides melting temperatures for several compositions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... induction melting (VIM) must be used. Casting alloys generally require a high fluidity, which can be improved strongly through the addition of silicon (at the expense of ductility) and mildly by aluminum. One of the most common additives in a cast alloy is hafnium, which improves ductility, thus...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...-crystal alloys) in directionally solidified castings, although the presence of hafnium is undesirable because it lowers the incipient melting point of the nickel matrix. Tantalum and tungsten are more effective than niobium, vanadium, and molybdenum in increasing the strength of γ′, probably by increasing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... are Nb-1Zr and PWC-11 (Nb-1Zr-0.1C), used for containment of liquid alkali metals in space nuclear power systems. These alloys typically contain additions of zirconium or hafnium, which remove oxygen from solution in niobium by precipitation of ZrO 2 or HfO 2 . Moderate strength, fabricable alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... superalloys during processing. The extent to which they directly contribute to strengthening depends on the alloy and its processing. In addition to those elements that produce solid-solution hardening and/or promote carbide and γ′ formation, other elements (e.g., boron, zirconium, and hafnium) are added...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Vanadium is an effective strengthener but impairs creep strength. Additions that form carbides include zirconium, hafnium, and titanium, while carbon and nitrogen form interstitials. Zirconium and hafnium form carbides and carbonitrides for the dispersion-strengthened alloys. These carbides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... permitted in many single-crystal alloys. (Hafnium, boron, and zirconium in limited amounts also may be permitted.) The trend in wrought P/M nickel-base superalloys continues to be toward reduced carbon and reduced carbide size as a means to limit fracture-mechanics-restricting defect sizes and numbers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... reactive metals such as niobium, tantalum, zirconium, and titanium, either as pure or alloyed metal. As low as one or two percent reactive metals in stainless or nickel alloys reduces their corrosion resistance to HF. Beryllium, titanium, niobium, tantalum, hafnium and zirconium are considered reactive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... found in quenched alloys in the hafnium-beryllium system and the Zr-Hf-Be ternary system. The equilibrium phase in all three binary systems is a Laves phase of composition MBe 2 . These findings clearly contributed to later work that led to the use of beryllium as a key ingredient in the first alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... processing. In addition to those elements that produce solid-solution hardening and/or promote carbide and γ′ formation, other elements (e.g., boron, zirconium, and hafnium) are added to enhance mechanical or chemical properties. These minor elements are not customarily found in most cobalt-base alloys. Some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... solid solubility ( Fig. 2.8 ). Nickel-copper and gold-silver are two binary alloy systems that show this complete solid solubility. Titanium exhibits unlimited solid solubility in beta phase (bcc structure) with hafnium (Hf), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), vanadium (V), and zirconium (Zr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... as neutral additions. Zirconium, tin, and hafnium are typical examples. Characteristics of neutral alloying additions include some depression of the beta transus temperature, substantial solubility in both alpha and beta phases, and alpha being present at room temperature over a wide range of conditions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... ( Ref 26 ). In alloys containing hafnium, the formation of (yttrium, hafnium) oxides has been observed ( Ref 21 ). The formation of orthorhombic AlYO 3 (yttrium-aluminum perovskite) and tetragonal Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (yttrium-aluminum garnet) has been observed in the ferritic alloy MA-956 and is shown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the effect of the two strengthening mechanisms in MA 6000. At intermediate temperatures, approximately 815 °C (1500 °F), the strength of MA 6000 approaches that of the complex, highly alloyed DS MAR-M 200 containing hafnium and is almost four times that of an unalloyed ODS metal such as thoriated nickel (TD...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., diffusion coatings and even overlay coatings are influenced by the alloy elements imported from the base superalloy. Favorable active element additions, such as hafnium, in the base superalloy can be incorporated in the coating and enhance performance. If that is the case, then the performance of a coating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... ... ... ... 0.3 (b) ... 0.3 (a) Minimum. (b) Maximum One of the major differences between nuclear and nonnuclear zirconium alloys is the hafnium content. Nuclear grades of zirconium alloys are virtually free of hafnium (not greater than 100 ppm). Nonnuclear grades of zirconium alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... turbines. Columnar grain directional solidification began commercially with PWA 664, which was a DS processed version of the alloy MAR-M-200, a very strong but not too ductile alloy when cast as a PC article. PWA 664 was made viable by the addition of hafnium as an alloying element to prevent columnar...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... in alloys containing tantalum, niobium, zirconium, titanium, or hafnium. Haynes 25 is the best known of the wrought alloys and has been widely used for hot sections of gas turbines, components for nuclear reactors, devices for surgical implants, and for cold-worked fasteners and wear pads. Haynes 188...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Hafnium (Hf) 5.7–7.0 3.2–3.9 Pure Zirconium (Zr) 6.3–6.6 3.5–3.7 Pure Cerium (Ce) 6.2–6.7 3.4–3.7 Pure Rhenium (Re) 6.5 3.6 Pure Tantalum (Ta) 4.9–8.2 2.7–4.6 Pure Chromium (Cr) 6.8 3.8 Pure Iridium (Ir) 2.0–12 1.1–6.7 Magnetically soft iron alloys 7.1 3.9 Pure...