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gray iron

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effect of composition and cooling rate on the microstructure and properties of cast irons and explains how they differ from steel. It describes the conditions under which white, gray, mottled (chilled), and nodular (ductile) cast irons are produced, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... composition, microstructure, heat treatments, and the classification and casting characteristics of white, gray, ductile, malleable, compacted graphite, and special cast irons. chemical composition compacted graphite cast iron ductile cast iron gray cast iron heat treatment malleable cast iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., Sn, Mo, and Mn) promote the formation of cementite. This chapter examines the relative potencies of these alloys and their effect on microstructure. It covers the five most common commercial cast irons, including white, gray, ductile, malleable, and compacted graphite, describing their compositional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article covers the metallurgy and properties of gray irons. It describes the classes or grades of gray iron, the types of applications for which they are suited, and the corresponding compositional ranges. It discusses the role of major, minor, and trace elements, how they are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the composition and morphology of compacted graphite (CG) iron relative to that of gray and ductile iron. It explains that the graphite in CG iron is intermediate in shape between the spheroidal graphite found in ductile iron and the flake graphite in gray iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article explains how malleable iron is produced and how its microstructure and properties differ from those of gray and ductile iron. Malleable iron is first cast as white iron then annealed to convert the iron carbide into irregularly shaped graphite particles called temper...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
..., rather than cementite, tends to form on freezing. With the cooling rates typical of casting into sand molds, the graphite forms as flakes. Figure 7.11 shows a typical microstructure of a gray cast iron . The ductility is limited to a few percent elongation because fracture occurs easily along the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the composition, properties, microstructure, grain formation, and fracture behavior of gray, white, ductile, and malleable cast iron and how these critical factors are affected when iron is heated to different temperatures prior to or during solidification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter is a detailed account of heat treating techniques for cast irons (gray and ductile), providing the reader with a basic understanding of the differences among various types of cast irons and the concept of carbon equivalent. The types of heat treatments discussed are stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter introduces the metallographer to the various types of steels and cast irons and explains how they are classified and defined. Classification and designation details are provided for plain carbon steels, alloy steels, and gray, white, ductile, and malleable cast irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... the effects of temperature variations on mechanical properties, both in tension and in compression. The nonlinear behavior of gray cast iron caused by the graphite flakes is then described. Finally, the effect of stress concentrations on high-strength metals is considered. elastic deformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... malleablizing treatment; the highest ductility grades of ductile iron are often annealed; permanent mold cast gray irons are annealed or normalized; and pearlitic malleable iron and high-strength grades of ductile iron may be either air or liquid quenched and tempered to obtain their specified strength and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...) (see Fig. 1 ). In ductile iron, eutectic graphite separates from the molten iron during solidification in a manner similar to that in which eutectic graphite separates in gray cast iron. However, because of additives (spheroidizing elements) introduced in the molten iron before casting, graphite grows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... generalized manner. The chapter provides a discussion on the constitution of commercially pure iron, subsequently leading to discussion on the iron-carbon alloy system. The chapter also describes the effect of carbon on the constitution of iron and of the solubility of carbon in iron. It provides information...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... 2.5% or less. This limitation means that copper cannot completely replace nickel in Ni-Hard-type irons. When added to chilled iron without chromium, copper narrows the zone of transition from white to gray iron, thus reducing the ratio of the mottled portion to the clear chilled portion. Copper is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... melting temperatures than most steels and are thus easy to melt and cast. There are a number of different types of cast iron that are widely used today for numerous applications. They are generally classified according to their microstructure, for example, gray iron, for its gray fracture appearance due...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... how excess carbon occurs in the microstructures. Figure 5.2 shows the types of cast iron in relationship to the carbon and silicon content. The three types of cast iron most commonly induction hardened are malleable iron, gray iron, and ductile iron. Gray and ductile irons are sometimes confused...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... lighter gray appearance than manganese sulfides, as shown in Fig. 3.41 . In this micrograph, taken from a normal AISI/SAE 1015 steel casting, the iron sulfide constituent surrounds a manganese sulfide particle. The dove gray color of a normal manganese sulfide inclusion can be seen in Fig. 3.42 for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... structures in iron-base alloys and multicomponent systems. microstructure peritectic systems peritectic transformation SIMILAR TO THE EUTECTIC group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a new solid phase on cooling...