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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the composition, properties, and uses of crystalline ceramics, glasses, clay, and concrete mixes. It also discusses the carbon structure of diamond, graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes. amorphous carbon clay concrete mixes crystalline ceramics diamond...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract The properties of cast iron are determined primarily by the form of carbon they contain, which in turn, is controlled by modifying compositions and cooling rates during casting. Certain alloys (such as Si, Al, Ni, Co, and Cu) promote graphite formation, while others (such as S, V, Cr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., niobium, and cobalt and their alloys; polymers; and other nonmetallic materials, including rubber, carbon and graphite, and woods. corrosion characteristics structural materials corrosion applications materials selection carbon steels weathering steels alloy steels nickel copper aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the composition and morphology of compacted graphite (CG) iron relative to that of gray and ductile iron. It explains that the graphite in CG iron is intermediate in shape between the spheroidal graphite found in ductile iron and the flake graphite in gray iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... contributes to the production of spheroidal transformation products and why secondary graphitization sometimes occurs. cementite graphitization pearlite plastic deformation spheroidization A spheroidized structure , which consists of approximately spherical particles of cementite in a matrix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the ambient-temperature corrosion characteristics of aluminum metal-matrix composites (MMCs), including composites formed with boron, graphite, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and mica. It also discusses the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on graphite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...-modulus graphite fibers in amorphous polymers. thermal stress physical aging amorphous polymers high-modulus graphite fibers ENGINEERING PLASTICS, as a general class of materials, are prone to the development of internal stresses that arise during processing or during service when parts are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... the effects of temperature variations on mechanical properties, both in tension and in compression. The nonlinear behavior of gray cast iron caused by the graphite flakes is then described. Finally, the effect of stress concentrations on high-strength metals is considered. elastic deformation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... composition, microstructure, heat treatments, and the classification and casting characteristics of white, gray, ductile, malleable, compacted graphite, and special cast irons. chemical composition compacted graphite cast iron ductile cast iron gray cast iron heat treatment malleable cast iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... melting, electron beam hearth melting, rammed graphite mold casting, sand casting, investment casting, hot isostatic pressing, weld repair, and heat treatment -- along with related equipment, process challenges, and achievable properties and microstructures. It also explains how titanium parts are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... rupture, including overheating, high-temperature creep, graphitization, and dissimilar metal welds. It explains how to determine which mechanisms are in play by interpreting fracture patterns and microstructural details. It also describes the investigation of several carbon and low-alloy steel tubes that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... subjected to liquid, droplet, and solid particle erosion. It also discusses the tribology of nickel- and cobalt-base alloys as well as titanium, zinc, tin, aluminum, magnesium, beryllium, graphite, and different types of wood. alloy composition cobalt-base alloys corrosion-resistant metals friction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... examines the growth mechanisms and structural details that set them apart. It also discusses the formation of compacted (vermicular) graphite and malleable iron, and compares and contrasts the composition, properties, and heat treatment of whiteheart and blackheart malleable types. chilled cast iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the metallurgy and properties of ductile cast iron. It begins with an overview of ductile or spheroidal-graphite iron, describing the specifications, applications, and compositions. It then discusses the importance of composition control and explains how various...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article explains how malleable iron is produced and how its microstructure and properties differ from those of gray and ductile iron. Malleable iron is first cast as white iron then annealed to convert the iron carbide into irregularly shaped graphite particles called temper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... designations Fiber designation Type Commercial source AS-4 High-strength carbon/graphite Hexcel T-400 Carbon/graphite Toray, SGL T-650 Carbon/graphite Toray IM-7 Intermediate-modulus carbon/graphite Toray M46J High-modulus carbon/graphite Toray OC 463 750 yield E-glass...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... generally graphite as opposed to the cementite (Fe 3 C) present in steels. To understand the first point, consider again the solidification of an Fe-18% C alloy, as discussed with the aid of Fig. 15.3 in Chapter 15, “Solidification.” It was explained that the interdendritic liquid will increase its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... composed of alternating layers of ferrite (light) and cementite. Cementite: A compound of iron and carbon, Fe 3 C. It is considered to be hard and brittle. Graphite: The high carbon content causes three-dimensional shapes of graphite that resemble a rose; when cross sections are cut, the graphite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... carbon and silicon, graphite, rather than cementite, tends to form on freezing. With the cooling rates typical of casting into sand molds, the graphite forms as flakes. Figure 7.11 shows a typical microstructure of a gray cast iron . The ductility is limited to a few percent elongation because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... Those irons that have a mixed gray and white appearance are called mottled iron . These names still apply today. Other cast irons appeared over the years and have names associated with a mechanical property, such as malleable iron and ductile iron . More recently, compacted graphite iron and...