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grain-boundary elements

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the typical compositional ranges of superalloys, the role of major base metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel), and the effects of common alloying additions. It describes how chromium, aluminum, and titanium as well as refractory elements, grain-boundary elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
.... It explains how the delta phase, which is used to control grain size in IN-718, improves strength and prevents stress-rupture embrittlement. It describes heat treatments for different product forms, discusses the effect of tramp elements on grain-boundary ductility, and explains how section size and test...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... tension acting on grain-boundary segments contributes to grain growth and how the formation of new grains, driven by phase transformations and recrystallization, lead to a reduction in average grain size. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements on grain growth rates, particularly the curbing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., W, Mo) 23 C 6 Form of precipitation is important; it can precipitate as films, globules, platelets, lamellae, and cells; usually forms at grain boundaries; “M” element is usually chromium, but nickel-cobalt, iron, molybdenum, and tungsten can substitute. M 6 C fcc a 0 = 1.085–1.175 Fe 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... elimination of grain boundaries with the single-crystal superalloys. 3.1 Solid-Solution Hardening Solid-solution hardening is the attainment of an increase in matrix strength by the addition of a different soluble element. The distortion of the atomic lattice caused by the misfit of atomic radius...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
..., with carbon combining with chromium in grain-boundary carbide formation, leaving the alloy vulnerable to grain-boundary corrosion because the surrounding region will be chromium depleted. If stress-rupture requirements do not permit the minimization of carbon, high levels of refractory elements that form...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 5.10 The grain-boundary segregation coefficients of Fe-X systems (11)-(13). The smaller solid solution limits an element has, the larger its grain-boundary segregation coefficient becomes. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... As noted previously, in microalloyed steels, microalloying element precipitates may completely suppress recrystallization after low-temperature hot rolling. Elongation of the deformed grains brings the original large-angle grain boundaries closer to one another, and when ferrite crystals nucleate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., as well as phosphorous, are clearly evident. On the other hand, the substitutional solid-solution elements silicon, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, aluminum, and chromium are far less effective as ferrite strengtheners. The strength of a ferritic steel is also determined by its grain size according...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Since impurities and alloying elements slow down grain growth, more time is needed for nucleation and finer recrystallized grain sizes. Solid-solution impurities tend to migrate to dislocations and grain boundaries and slow their motion, thus raising the recrystallization temperature. Second phases also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... a wire to float on water This sucking-in phenomenon is often called wetting, for obvious reasons. Now, consider a small spherical ball of liquid FeS lying at a grain boundary in steel at the hot rolling temperature. The grain-boundary surface is similar to the surface on a copper pipe. The grain...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 3.1 (a) Two-dimensional representation of the boundary between two crystals with different crystalline orientations. The regions indicated by the lines are called grain boundaries, regions where the atoms are somewhere between the two crystalline lattices. The two-dimensional More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-packed, and body-centered cubic. It then describes the four main divisions of crystal defects, namely point defects, line defects, planar defects, and volume defects. The chapter provides information on grain boundaries of metals, processes involved in atomic diffusion, and key properties of a solid...
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 8.12 Grain growth in a plain carbon 1018 steel versus a triple-alloyed 8620 steel at 1010 °C (1850 °F). The alloying elements cause a grain-boundary drag effect and inhibit grain growth. Source: Ref 8.7 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... elements and impurities to the grain-boundary regions. These heterogeneities, which can also develop during subsequent processing such as welding or heat treatment, can produce different electrochemical characteristics at the grain boundary relative to the grain interior and can lead to intergranular...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... = 1.050–1.070 (varies with composition) Cr 23 C 6 (Cr, Fe, W, Mo) 23 C 6 Form of precipitation is important for mechanical properties; it can precipitate as globules, platelets, or lamellae; usually forms at grain boundaries; “M” element is usually Cr, but Ni, Co, Fe, Mo, and W can substitute. M 6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... as decarburization or the buildup of brittle carbides on the grain boundaries of an austenitic stainless steel by the process known as sensitization. cast iron decarburization deformation heat treatment microstructure sensitization solidification steel IN THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER, it was shown how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... usefulness, and the crystalline arrangement strongly influences their processing. Although metals can exist as single crystals, they are more commonly polycrystalline solids with crystalline grains of repeating atomic packing sequences. Periodic crystalline order is the equilibrium structure of all solid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... the limit of solid solubility, the excess atoms of the alloying element will become trapped in the grain boundaries. Then, as the temperature is further decreased, the excess atoms try to unite with atoms of the base metal to form small regions of intermetallic compound . Although these regions have...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... alloys because they reduce the tendency for grain-boundary cracking. However, since single-crystal alloys do not have grain boundaries, they are often reduced or eliminated in these alloys. Role of alloying elements in superalloys Table 30.1 Role of alloying elements in superalloys Alloy...