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grain-boundary

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...- and fine-grained steels. The chapter also discusses grain-refinement processes and some of the effects of overheating, including sulfide spheroidization, grain-boundary sulfide precipitation, and grain-boundary liquation. austenitization carbon steel grain boundary grain growth grain size We...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the effect of heat treating and other processes on the microstructure-property relationships that occur in superalloys. It discusses precipitation and grain-boundary hardening and how they influence the phases, structures, and properties of various alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Fig. 16.1 Schaeffler diagram. The regions corresponding to the most common stainless steel families are indicated. Fig. 16.2 AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel quenched and tempered. (a) and (b) Tempered martensite. (c) Tempered martensite with grain boundaries decorated with fine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... surface tension acting on grain-boundary segments contributes to grain growth and how the formation of new grains, driven by phase transformations and recrystallization, lead to a reduction in average grain size. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements on grain growth rates, particularly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... the control of grain structure, as in columnar-grained alloys, or by the elimination of grain boundaries as with single-crystal superalloys. dispersion strengthening precipitation hardening solid-solution hardening superalloys SUPERALLOYS ARE STRENGTHENED through three principal mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the context in which metallography is used and some of the challenges of analyzing three-dimensional structures from a two-dimensional perspective. It describes the hierarchical nature of metals, the formation of grain boundaries, and the notable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... of twinning planes on stacking sequences. The chapter also includes problems on how the formation of precipitates can produce slip planes and how grain boundaries can act as obstacles to dislocation motion. dislocation mobility edge dislocations glide plane grain boundaries miscibility pinning...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the typical compositional ranges of superalloys, the role of major base metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel), and the effects of common alloying additions. It describes how chromium, aluminum, and titanium as well as refractory elements, grain-boundary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... twinned grains and recrystallized grains along original grain boundaries that result from working during metallographic polishing. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of the 14 different lattices Fig. 3 Face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure Fig. 4 Hexagonal close...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... temperatures, hydrogen atoms can be absorbed at the surface and then diffuse into the metal. Hydrogen atoms in the metal then react with iron carbide forming methane gas which can accumulate at grain boundaries and other interfaces. The chapter describes two applications, one in coal-fired boilers, the other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... H 2 O, at boiling temperature add MoO 3 , until saturation 20 °C, grain boundary etching 17m Lienard 1 g (NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4 , 200 ml H 2 O dist., 6 g NH 4 Cl 20 °C 1 , 15 — H 3 PO 4 10% H 3 PO 4 , H 2 O dist. 20 °C, 20 s 1 , 10 – 13 1–5min, 50 °C 2m H 2 SO 4 20% H 2 SO 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of a surface film. It describes bulk and surface reactions that contribute to SCC, including dissolution, mass transport, absorption, diffusion, and embrittlement, and their role in crack nucleation and growth. It also discusses crack tip chemistry, grain-boundary interactions, and the effect of stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... kinetics. TTT, time-temperature-transformation Fig. 27 Variation of critical crevice corrosion temperature with alloy content Fig. 28 Schematic illustration of sensitization due to chromium-rich precipitates that deplete adjacent regions of chromium. GB, grain boundary Fig. 30...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Fig. 3.28 Microstructure of an AISI/SAE 1080 steel bloom showing excessive decarburization along (a) the bloom surface and a shallow crack and (b) a magnified view at the crack tip. Note that ferrite has nucleated on the prior austenite grain boundaries. 4% picral etch. (a) 40× and (b) 100...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
..., dislocation movement, and grain boundary sliding. It describes these mechanisms in qualitative terms, explaining how they are driven by thermal energy and how they can be analyzed using creep curves and deformation maps. In addition, it examines the types of damage associated with creep, presents a number...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and rearrangement of defects within the deformed metal, without the movement or migration of high-angle grain boundaries. During recovery, there are several basic types of processes that occur: (1) the annihilation of excess point defects, particularly vacancies; (2) the rearrangement of dislocations into lower...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... pressure 55 TSI), and then sintering in 100% hydrogen at 1205 °C (2200 °F) for 30 minutes (sintered density of 6.95 g/cm 3 ). As-polished Fig. 9 Photomicrograph of high temperature 1315 °C (2400 °F), hydrogen sintered 304L showing well-rounded porosity, precipitate-free grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to grain boundaries or surfaces, which act as sinks. If a metal is heated to a high temperature, the number of vacancies increases. If it is then suddenly quenched to room temperature, the vacancies are trapped in the lattice, because they do not have time to diffuse out. Vacancies can form by several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... beforehand) First 4% picral, then 2% nital Ferrite grains and grain boundaries 2% nital or Marshall’s reagent Grain-boundary carbides 4% picral Carbide networks 4% picral Both ferrite grains and carbides 4% picral + 2% nital or Marshall’s reagent Pearlite 4% picral Bainite 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... explains how the two forms of corrosion are related to stress-corrosion cracking. aluminum-copper alloys aluminum-magnesium alloys exfoliation corrosion intergranular corrosion IN INTERGRANULAR CORROSION and in exfoliation corrosion, the grain boundaries of the corroded metal become anodic...