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grain structure

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... of grain structure, as in columnar-grained alloys, or by the elimination of grain boundaries as with single-crystal superalloys. dispersion strengthening precipitation hardening solid-solution hardening superalloys SUPERALLOYS ARE STRENGTHENED through three principal mechanisms: solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the transformations, grain structure, and properties associated with each phase and identifies the primary stabilizing elements. It includes several micrographs revealing various microstructural features and describes the processing route by which they were achieved. It explains how to estimate the volume fraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...). This chapter describes those conditions, focusing initially on the effects of alloying elements and temper on solution potential and how it compares to other metals. It then addresses the issue of intergranular corrosion and its role in SCC. It explains how factors such as stress loads, grain structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes heat treatments that produce uniform grain structures, reduce residual stresses, and improve ductility and machinability. It also discusses spheroidizing treatments that improve strength and toughness by promoting dispersions of spherical carbides in a ferrite matrix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the thermally induced changes that occur on the surface of steel exposed to different environments. It explains how oxide scales form during heat treating and how factors such as temperature, composition, and surface finish affect growth rates, grain structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the development and use of microstructure models for optimizing superalloy forging operations. It describes how the processes that control grain structure evolution during hot working were used in model formulation and compares predicted microstructures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the relationship between cooling rate, grain size, grain shape, and phase structures. It explains how the transition from liquid to solid state creates the conditions under which microsegregation occurs, and how it impacts the distribution of alloying elements, carbides, and inclusions. The link between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., and the relative amount of each type of atom present. Solids have either random (amorphous) structures or spatially symmetric ( crystalline ) structures. The phase of a solid refers to a physically distinct portion of a material with a uniform chemical composition and structure. For example, when all the grains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter covers the emerging practice of quantitative microscopy and its application in the study of the microstructure of metals. It describes the methods used to quantify structural gradients, volume fraction, grain size and distribution, and other features of interest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... by technology parameters such as pouring temperature, pressure, cooling rate, and mold material. Therefore, cast part structure produced by standard technology is characterized by its microstructure parameters—that is, morphology and size of crystallites of phase constituents (grains) and their distribution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... system by which they are defined, and the applications for which they are suited. It then explains how primary alloying elements, second-phase constituents, and impurities affect yield strength, phase formation, and grain size and how they induce structural changes that help refine certain alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... . The relationship between the structures developed is summarized diagrammatically in Fig. 4.3 (Part 2) (g) . [1] Fig. 4.3 (Part 1) Effects of finishing and coiling temperatures on ferritic grain structure of hot-rolled low-carbon strip. Rimming grade. 0.09C-0.41Mn-0.005Si (wt%). As-rolled. (a) 140 HV...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., and the effects of grain size on the structural properties of the material. etchants etching grain size number grinding light optical microscopy metallography microphotography mounting polishing sectioning THE METHODS AND EQUIPMENT described in this chapter cover the preparation of specimens...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., dimensional stability, and generation of quenching and grinding cracks. They also include insufficient case hardness and improper core hardness, influence of surface carbon content and grain size, internal oxidation, structure of carbides, and inclusion of noncarbide. Details on micropitting, macropitting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
..., and hypereutectoid steels. It discusses the factors that influence the kinetics of the process, including carbon diffusion and the morphology of the original structure. It describes the nucleation and growth of austenite grains, the effect of grain size on mechanical properties, and the difference between coarse...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... to complete solidification, referred to as direct cooling. This results in the formation of the cast grain and cell structure and, finally, the eutectic cast phases on the grain and cell boundaries as well as a characteristic profile of the solidification front across the cast log cross section, which is also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... A thermal gradient is most easily controlled by controlling the rate of heat extraction from the casting, or the cooling rate. Alloys that have a wide spread between the liquidus and the solidus temperatures solidify with a mostly equiaxed grain structure at normal cooling rates, whereas alloys with small...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract This chapter examines the effect of heat treating and other processes on the microstructure-property relationships that occur in superalloys. It discusses precipitation and grain-boundary hardening and how they influence the phases, structures, and properties of various alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the processes involved in alloy production, including melting, casting, solidification, and fabrication. It discusses the effects of alloying on solidification, the formation of solidification structures, supercooling, nucleation, and grain growth. It describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... stabilizers. It explains how precipitates provide strength by impeding deformation under load. It also discusses the factors that influence grain size, shape, and orientation and how they can be controlled to optimize mechanical and physical properties. alloying elements crystal structure gamma double...