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grain refinement model

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... other metals can be modeled surprisingly well with soap bubbles. A very simple kitchen experiment can give a feel for the geometry of grains in metals. In the bottom of a small-diameter clear glass, place several drops of a liquid dishwashing soap, and then add enough water to make a layer approximately...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... discusses the influence of casting variables, including pouring temperature and cooling rate, and operating considerations such as the make-up of charge materials, fluxing and degassing procedures, and grain refining. The chapter also provides information on vertical and horizontal casting systems, billet...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... objectives of forging may include grain refinement, control of second-phase morphology, controlled grain flow, and the achievement of specific microstructures and properties. The chapter explains how these objectives can be met by managing work energy via temperature and deformation control. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... engineer databases, makes flow modeling calculations, and applies expert rules for assessment of corrosivity and/or materials selection. This basically has resulted in a joining of online monitoring, inspection technologies, computer science, and process control information with real-time feed to process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... processes such as working or welding Induce softness after cold working Alter the mechanical, electrical, or magnetic properties Produce grain reorientation Refine the crystal structure Produce a definite or refined microstructure In practically all cases, the alteration of any of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to the grain boundaries. Using crack-tip chemistry modeling, it was shown that intergranular corrosion did not convert to a stress-corrosion crack in Ni + S because the sulfur remained on the crack walls, causing the electrolyte in the solution to become saturated and the crack-tip corrosion rate to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... and machinability. Also, it relieves internal stresses, restores ductility and toughness, refines grains, reduces gaseous content in the steel, and improves homogenization of alloying elements. Full annealing: Heat 30–50 °C (55–90 °F) above Ac 3 for hypoeutectoid steels, then furnace cool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
.... St. , Effect of Alloy Composition on the Dendrite Arm Spacing of Multicomponent Aluminum Alloys , Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 41A , 2010 , p 1528 – 1538 10.1007/s11661-010-0183-9 27. Kashyap K.T. and Chandrashekar T. , Effects and Mechanisms of Grain Refinement in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract This chapter examines the effect of heat treating and other processes on the microstructure-property relationships that occur in superalloys. It discusses precipitation and grain-boundary hardening and how they influence the phases, structures, and properties of various alloys. It...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... 237 . 10.1016/S0924-0136(98)00357-4 [Hardwicke et al., 2000] Hardwicke C. , and Shen G. , “ Modeling Grain Size Evolution of P/M Rene 88DT Forgings, ” Advanced Technologies for Superalloy Affordability , Chang K.-M. , Srivastava S.K. , Furrer D.U. , and Bain K.R...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Prager’s kinematic hardening model with a nonlinear term to express the back stress. Chauboche further refined this model, which can be expressed as: (Eq 5.76) d α i j = 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... , Characterization and Modeling for Forging Deformation of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si , Metall. Trans. A , AIME , Nov 1981 10.1007/BF02643797 10.17 Bartlo L.J. , “The Metallurgy of Titanium and Titanium Alloys,” RMI Research Report R483, RMI Titanium Co. , Niles, OH , 1967 10.18 Altan...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... embrittlement of austenitic stainless steel have been proposed. The most accepted model involves the reduction in atomic bond strength at a surface imperfection, grain boundary, or crack tip by chemisorbed zinc metal. Zinc embrittlement is commonly a relatively slow process that is controlled by the rate of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... strengthening heat treatments and for grain refinement. Diagrams with solid-state transformations, intermediate, and intermetallic phases are interpreted and used with the guidelines noted previously. A brief discussion and a few examples should clarify these important features common to titanium and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... movement in adjacent grains, or unique grain-boundary dislocation densities or structures in which dislocation sources may be pinned may exist. Matlock et al. ( Ref 11.27 ) have recently reviewed the models for grain-size strengthening. Although several models have been proposed, the finer the grain size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Al, Cr Al, Cr, Y, La, Ce Improve hot corrosion resistance La, Y La, Y, Th La, Th Sulfidation resistance Cr Cr Cr, Co, Si Improves creep properties B … B, Ta Increases rupture strength B B, Zr B (c) Grain-boundary refiners … … B, C, Zr, Hf Facilitates working … Ni...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter explores the behavior of stainless steel in media that promote corrosion. The forms of corrosion covered are uniform corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, localized corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and grain boundary corrosion. The chapter discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... brittle failure. Most steels that are carburized are deoxidized by the addition of aluminum (commonly designated as killed steels). Deoxidation will provide finer grain sizes to temperatures of approximately 1040 °C. Coarser grained steels may be carburized if grain refinement by double quenching is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... produce grain refinement, which further decreases hardenability. In terms of alloying, usually the least expensive means of increasing hardenability at a given carbon content is by increasing the manganese content. Chromium and molybdenum also increase hardenability and are among the most economical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... composition, impurities, and grain size and the use of hydrostatic testing. beryllium creep properties fatigue properties fracture toughness tensile properties THE EFFECT of the many variables of the material, in the processing and in testing (such as temperature, grain size, impurities, and...