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grain refinement

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...- and fine-grained steels. The chapter also discusses grain-refinement processes and some of the effects of overheating, including sulfide spheroidization, grain-boundary sulfide precipitation, and grain-boundary liquation. austenitization carbon steel grain boundary grain growth grain size We...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., gravity, micro, and inverse. The chapter also provides information on grain refinement and secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity and shrinkage in castings. It concludes with a brief overview of six of the most important casting processes in industries: sand casting, plaster mold casting, evaporative...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., the objectives of forging may include grain refinement, control of second-phase morphology, controlled grain flow, and the achievement of specific microstructures and properties. The chapter explains how these objectives can be met by managing work energy via temperature and deformation control. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... information on residual elements, microalloying, grain refinement, mechanical properties, and grain size of these steels. In addition, the effects of free-machining additives are also discussed. carbon steel composition grain size hardenability low-alloy steel PLAIN CARBON STEELS are by far...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
.... It then discusses the influence of casting variables, including pouring temperature and cooling rate, and operating considerations such as the make-up of charge materials, fluxing and degassing procedures, and grain refining. The chapter also provides information on vertical and horizontal casting systems, billet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc melting, and electron beam melting, and some of the ways they have been used to cast beryllium alloys. The chapter also includes information on metal purification and grain refinement procedures. beryllium casting grain refinement ingots melting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., which may be remelted several times to achieve the necessary properties. It also discusses the cause of defects and ingot imperfections and the benefits of billet reduction and grain-refinement processes. billets ingots mill products titanium alloys titanium sponge vacuum arc remelting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...; dendrite arm spacing; grain size and shape; and eutectic modification and primary phase refinement. This chapter discusses the effects of these microstructural features on properties and methods for controlling them. The chapter concludes with a detailed examination of the refinement of hypereutectic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... system by which they are defined, and the applications for which they are suited. It then explains how primary alloying elements, second-phase constituents, and impurities affect yield strength, phase formation, and grain size and how they induce structural changes that help refine certain alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... of microalloyed HSLA steels result, however, from more than just the mere presence of microalloying elements. Austenite conditioning, which depends on the complex effects of alloy design and rolling techniques, is also an important factor in the grain refinement of hot-rolled HSLA steels. Grain refinement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
.... f p , porosity fraction Fig. 5.4 Relationship of pore volume to cooling rate for different hydrogen contents in Al-4.7Mg alloy (similar to alloy 514.0). Hydrogen content (cm 3 /100 g): 1, 0.31 (no grain refiner); 2, 0.31 (grain refined); 3, 0.22 (grain refined); 4, 0.18 (grain refined); 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... alloys—0.5 to 0.76 mm/yr (20 to 30 mils/yr) as opposed to less than 0.25 mm/yr (10 mils/yr) in 5% salt spray—but contaminants again must be controlled. The zirconium alloying element is effective in this case because it serves as a strong grain refiner for magnesium alloys, and it precipitates the iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., hydrogen atoms can be absorbed at the surface and then diffuse into the metal. Hydrogen atoms in the metal then react with iron carbide forming methane gas which can accumulate at grain boundaries and other interfaces. The chapter describes two applications, one in coal-fired boilers, the other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... processes such as working or welding Induce softness after cold working Alter the mechanical, electrical, or magnetic properties Produce grain reorientation Refine the crystal structure Produce a definite or refined microstructure In practically all cases, the alteration of any...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... not. Because most alloys that do not contain aluminum as an alloying element contain zirconium additions to refine the grain structure (magnesium-manganese alloys are the main exception), commercial magnesium alloy systems can be alternatively grouped as zirconium-free and zirconium-containing. The specific...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... that the grain size of a carburized and hardened component is both uniform and fine. Generally, the starting point is a grain-refined steel having an ASTM grain size from No. 5 to 8, though subsequent mechanical and thermal processing can change the final microstructure to be either more coarse or fine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... of Grain Refinement to 1 μm on Strength and Toughness of Dual-Phase Steels , Mat. Sci. Eng. A , Vol 527 ( No. 29–30 ), Nov 2010 , p 7832 – 7840 10.1016/j.msea.2010.08.062 Steelmakers are at the forefront of developing advanced steels and manufacturing technologies for current and future...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... , Vol 500–501 , 2005 , p 97 – 112 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.500-501.97 5.4 Calcagnotto M. , Ponge D. , and Raabe D. , Effect of Grain Refinement to 1 mm on Strength and Toughness of Dual-Phase Steels , Mat. Sci. Eng. A , Vol 527 ( No. 29–30 ), Nov 2010 , p 7832...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... isotherm is approached. Fine-grained fully-austenitized zone (A 3 isotherm to approximately 1100 °C). A subsection of a zone in which complete transformation to austenite occurs. Little, if any, grain growth occurs in the austenite. Grain-refining elements added to the parent metal remain effective...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... and microstructure of CP steels is very similar to that of TRIP steels, but CP steels contain some quantities of niobium, titanium, and/or vanadium that cause the precipitation-strengthening effect. As mentioned earlier, complex-phase steels are strengthened by solid-solution, precipitation, grain refinement...