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grain morphology

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., cellular, and dendritic growth, the basic freezing sequence for an alloy casting, and the variations in cooling rate, heat flow, and grain morphology in different areas of the mold. It also describes the types of segregation that occur during freezing, the effect of solidification rate on secondary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the structures, phases, and phase transformations observed in metals and alloys as they solidify and cool to lower temperatures. It begins with a review of the solidification process, covering nucleation, grain growth, and the factors that influence grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... grains and the process by which they form. It describes how cooling rates, temperature gradients, and local concentrations influence the topology of the crystallization front, and how they play a role in determining the morphology and dispersion degree of the grains observed in cross sections of cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
..., and hypereutectoid steels. It discusses the factors that influence the kinetics of the process, including carbon diffusion and the morphology of the original structure. It describes the nucleation and growth of austenite grains, the effect of grain size on mechanical properties, and the difference between coarse...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... It provides examples showing how the various features appear, how they are measured, and how the resulting data are converted into usable form. The chapter also discusses the quantification of fracture morphology and its correlation with material properties and behaviors. grain morphology grain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., the objectives of forging may include grain refinement, control of second-phase morphology, controlled grain flow, and the achievement of specific microstructures and properties. The chapter explains how these objectives can be met by managing work energy via temperature and deformation control. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... martensite and bainite. It also discusses the formation of austenite, the control and measurement of austenitic grain size, the characteristics of ferritic microstructures, and the methods used to classify ferrite morphology. austenite austenite decomposition austenitic grain size bainite carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter provides perspective on the physical dimensions associated with the microstructure of steel and the instruments that reveal grain size, morphology, phase distributions, crystal defects, and chemical composition, from which properties and behaviors derive. The chapter also reviews...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... that result from beta annealing (or processing) are also easily recognized under the light microscope. Cooling rates govern the grain morphology resulting from beta treatments. Acicular martensitic structures are produced by rapidly cooling beta-lean alloys from above their beta transus temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... as geometrically close-packed (gcp) phases. In addition to grain size and morphology, (plus occasional cold work) it is the production and control (manipulation) of the various phases that give superalloys their unique characteristics. The superalloys derive their strength mostly from solid-solution hardeners...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... 22 57.5 … 1.5 … … … … 7.5 … 0.5 Mn, 0.5 Si (a) B-1900 + Hf also contains 1.5% Hf. (b) MAR-M 200 + Hf also contains 1.5% Hf. The principal microstructural variables of superalloys are the precipitate amount and morphology, grain size and shape, and carbide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... measured in hours. The temperature at which rolling and extrusion are performed can have an impact on intergranular corrosion resistance of the resulting product. The temperature at which products exit the deformation process can have an especially significant impact on the grain morphology...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... spectroscopy. It explains how the tools work and what they reveal. It also covers the topic of image analysis and its application in the measurement of grain size, phase/volume fraction, delta ferrite and retained austenite, inclusion rating, depth of carburization/decarburization, scale thickness, pearlite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... as the steel cools through the eutectoid temperature. As the temperature decreases, the morphology of proeutectoid ferrite changes. Growth along the grain boundaries becomes markedly easier than growth normal to them. Therefore, films of proeutectoid ferrite form at the sites of the former austenite boundaries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... ferrite morphologies that form from austenite in steels. Figure 7.1 shows schematically various morphologies of crystals described in the Dubé system. Figure 7.1(a) represents a crystal that has nucleated on and grown along a parent-phase grain boundary. This type of crystal is termed a grain-boundary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... with temperature, becoming vanishingly small above a critical temperature (the A 1 temperature); and the compositions of the products are different from that of the parent phase. After an incubation period, a colony of pearlite is nucleated—usually at an austenitic grain boundary ( Fig. 9.1 (Part 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... morphology; therefore, the term eutectic grain is used throughout this section. The regularity of some eutectic microstructures can be used to make in situ composites. By using a controlled heat flux to achieve slow directional solidification, it is possible to obtain an aligned microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... or plates often in Widmanstätten form M 2 SC hcp a o = 0.3234–3.386 c o = 11.233–11.834 (Zr,Ti,Nb) 2 SC Observed at high levels of S or low C/S ratios Source: Ref 1 , 2 The morphology of the precipitates is a key factor that determines the properties of the alloy. Continuous grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190vii
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... crystallites (grains) of condensed phases—that is, solid solutions, intermetallic phases, and nonmetallic inclusions. This internal construction bears the external loading. The grains (in casting alloys also dendrite grains and eutectic grains) represent a small volume of material and are strictly defined...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... cementite (Fe 3 C). Depending on carbon content and cooling rate, several different microstructures of ferrite and cementite can occur (see also the “ Proeutectoid Ferrite and Cementite ” section in this chapter). In low-carbon steels, the morphology of ferrite can vary from equiaxed grains to needlelike...