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grain growth

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Annealing, a heat treatment process, is used to soften metals that have been hardened by cold working. This chapter discusses the following three distinct processes that can occur during annealing: recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. The types of processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... surface tension acting on grain-boundary segments contributes to grain growth and how the formation of new grains, driven by phase transformations and recrystallization, lead to a reduction in average grain size. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements on grain growth rates, particularly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... measure it. It then describes the principles of austenite formation and grain growth and examines several time-temperature-austenitizing diagrams representing various alloying and processing conditions. The chapter concludes with a discussion on hot deformation and subsequent recrystallization...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... homogenization, and the cause of casting defects, including cracking and splitting, segregation, porosity, and grain growth. aluminum alloys billets casting casting defects The extrusion process consists of four major components, hydraulic press, die, tooling, and billet casting. In the previous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of the interface, as shown. Fig. 2.4 Freezing of a uniformly cooled alloy liquid involves nucleation, grain growth, and variable composition within each grain. Each dendrite develops branches along three sets of axes, each at 90° to the other. Only two sets of axes are shown here; the third set...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... for high-carbon steels). It also addresses process-specific issues, explaining how the presence of carbides (in the two-phase process) produces significant changes, and how homogenization and austenite grain growth influence the single-phase process. austenitization cast iron high-carbon steel low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the properties and uses of aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and other nonferrous alloys. It also discusses the effect of cold working and the process of annealing, including recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. annealing cold working...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...) with cold work H2 x tempers indicated. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 2 Schematic summary of the driving force, mechanism, and results for recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 1 Iron-carbon binary phase diagram with areas of steel annealing temperatures above, below...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Progressive growth of dendrites into grains Fig. 5.18 Modern vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnace. (a) 30-ton VAR. (b) Operational components: 1, electrode feed drive; 2, furnace chamber; 3, melting power supply; 4, busbars/cables; 5, electrode ram; 6, water jacket with crucible; 7, vacuum suction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...% nital + picral. 2000×. Fig. 8.8 (Part 1) Austenite grain growth in a normal 0.5% C hypoeutectoid steel (silicon deoxidized). 0.50C-0.06Si-0.7Mn (wt%). (a) Austenitized for 1 h at 850 °C, cooled at 300 °C/h. Austenite grain size: ASTM No. 5. 180 HV. Picral. 100×. (b) Austenitized for 1 h...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... carbon steel ferritic microstructure grain growth heat treatment low alloy steel martensite Heat treatment is the most common way of altering the mechanical, physical, and even chemical properties of steels. In this chapter, conventional heat treatments, primarily those applied to carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... to improve fracture toughness. Annealing should be only slightly higher than the transus to prevent excessive grain growth. Beta quench Solution treat at ~15 °C (30 °F) above T β , water quench and temper at 650–760 °C (1200–1400 °F) for 2 h Tempered alpha prime (α′) Strengthening by the formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., recrystallization, and grain growth occur after cold working operations such as cold rolling followed by annealing. Fig. 5.18 Effect of stress-relief time and temperature on the percent of original residual stresses remaining Fig. 5.20 Effect of cold reduction on the temperature for initiation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... with experimental results. grain growth microstructure model recrystallization superalloy forgings 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Experiments for Microstructure Model Development 19.3 Microstructure Model Formulation 19.4 Prediction of Microstructure in Superalloy Forging 19.5 Nomenclature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... growth rates, grain structure, and uniformity. It provides examples of oxides that form beneath the surface of steel and explains why it occurs. It describes the conditions associated with decarburization and explains how to determine the depth of decarburized layers in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
..., and Grain Growth Kinetics in Solid-Pore Systems , Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. , Vol 35 , 2010 , p 263 – 305 10.1080/10408436.2010.525197 • German R.M. , “ MIM 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Processing, Properties and Best Practice , Powder Inj. Mould. Int. , Vol 10 ( No. 2 ), 2018 , p...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of a surface film. It describes bulk and surface reactions that contribute to SCC, including dissolution, mass transport, absorption, diffusion, and embrittlement, and their role in crack nucleation and growth. It also discusses crack tip chemistry, grain-boundary interactions, and the effect of stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of planar, cellular, and dendritic growth, the basic freezing sequence for an alloy casting, and the variations in cooling rate, heat flow, and grain morphology in different areas of the mold. It also describes the types of segregation that occur during freezing, the effect of solidification rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., which lie between those of steels and aluminum alloys. Source: Ref 36 , 37 Fig. 56 Influence of grain size on fatigue crack growth at R = 0.07 for commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) with varying oxygen contents. Under these loading conditions, fatigue crack growth is lowered by coarse...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Growth in Structural Steel , Met. Sci. Heat Treat. , Vol 17 ( No. 1-2 ), Jan/Feb 1975 4. Biggs B.L. , Austenite Grain-Size Control of Medium-Carbon and Carburising Steels , J. Iron Steel Inst. , Vol 192 ( No. 4 ), Aug 1959 , p 361 – 377 5. Miller O.O. , Influence...