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grain counts

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter covers the emerging practice of quantitative microscopy and its application in the study of the microstructure of metals. It describes the methods used to quantify structural gradients, volume fraction, grain size and distribution, and other features of interest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Point count. Number of points in a feature per total number of sampling points Source: Adapted from Ref 7 , 8 Volumetric Fraction Grain Size Other Important Measurements If measurements are performed with statistical uniformity (i.e., randomly) it can be shown that: V V...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... on a substrate. Source: Ref 5.23 Fig. 5.1 Schematic of grain size comparison charts Fig. 5.2 Grain size measurement on final superheater tube sample Fig. 5.3 Volume fraction measurement on a steel sample Sr. No. Bainite (black areas), vol% Martensite (white areas), vol...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Statistical Aspects of Fatigue Examples of Fatigue Fracture Summary References References 1. Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1986 , p 4 , 104 , 110 , 530 – 533 2. DeVries P.H. , Ruth K.T. , and Dennies D.P. , Counting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... represents a particular 2θ value and corresponding d -spacing for a constituent. Each peak is labeled with the constituent matching that particular 2θ angle. The vertical axis (intensity) is from 0 to 500 counts/s, and the horizontal axis is from 25 to 155°. Fig. 6.31 The d -spacings for iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the grain structure. The most direct method is then to count the number of grains present in a known area of the sample so the grain size can be expressed as the number of grains/area. ASTM International has developed standard procedures for determining average grain size. The ASTM grain size number...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... to fine-grained steels Refined; excess carbide not dissolved; distortion minimized Unrefined; soft and machinable B: Best adapted to fine-grained steels Slightly coarsened; some solution of excess carbide Partially refined; stronger and tougher than A C: Best adapted to fine-grained steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...Effect of grain size on low-cycle fatigue of aluminum alloy Table 11.1 Effect of grain size on low-cycle fatigue of aluminum alloy Δσ = 10.5 ksi, R = –1.0 Specimen grain size diam, mm (in.) Number of cycles to failure Number of striations Number of cycles for initiation 0.127...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Flyer was essentially a wood and cloth structure with metals serving necessary supporting roles. Orville was the materials man. For wood he chose West Virginia white spruce because it is light and has a straight grain (for strength). The fabric was “Pride of the West,” a quality muslin. Wooden runners...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... Etched in a solution of equal parts 2% nital and 4% picral to reveal both the patches of pearlite and the ferrite grain boundaries for grain size measurement, using ASTM E 112 standard. 500× Fig. 4.24 Representative micrographs of the ferritic-pearlitic cast iron test block 2. (a) Note...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... methods that measure the intensity of the beam in counts per second diffracted from the specimen over a range of angles. A powdered or polycrystalline specimen consisting of many fine and randomly oriented particles is exposed to monochromatic x-radiation. Each powder particle (or grain) is a crystal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... sulfide (FeS) will form at grain boundaries. If the sulfur content is balanced by manganese, harmless manganese sulfide (MnS) particles will be distributed within the grains. The optimal ratio between manganese and sulfur to achieve an FeS-free structure and a maximum amount of ferrite is: (Eq 24.2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... role in creating dislocations, breaking up grains into subgrains, and causing microscopic imperfections to coalesce into larger flaws. It also discusses the factors that contribute to the development and propagation of fatigue cracks, including surface deterioration, volumetric and environmental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... ) phase. Figure 2.31 also plots the effect of temperature on solubility limits of some other alloying elements in aluminum. The most direct method to quantify average grain size is to count the number of grains present in a known area of the sample, so that the grain size can be expressed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... grain MAR-M-200 from coming apart on transverse grain boundaries. The resulting alloy was designated PWA 1422. Single-crystal directional solidification began with a SC version of MAR-M-200, but commercial application did not begin until the development of PWA 1480. Dependent on how one counts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... the grain structure. The most direct method is then to count the number of grains present in a known area of the sample so the grain size can be expressed as the number of grains/area. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) grain size index number is derived from the number of grains/in. 2 when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...ASTM E112 grain size, <italic>n</italic> = 2<sup><italic>N</italic>−1</sup> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t59310001-ref4">Ref 4</xref>) Table 3 ASTM E112 grain size, n = 2 N −1 ( Ref 4 ) Grain size No. ( N ) Average number of grains/unit area No./mm 2 at 1×( n ) No./in. 2 at 100...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... spheroids Excess promotes carbides Rare earths 0–0.30% About 0.035% About 0.035% Promotes nodule count and quality in combination with magnesium; neutralizes subversive elements Excess promotes carbides in thin sections and chunky graphite in heavy sections Ca Not detected Essentially...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... + log  n log  2 where n is defined as the number of grains per square inch (645 mm 2 ) on a micrograph having a magnification of 100×. Figure 1.1 is at a magnification of 100×, so by counting the number of grains shown and measuring the area of the circular micrograph, the grain size...