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grain boundaries

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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 12.5 Because atoms at grain boundaries are in a higher energy state, the grain boundaries become anodic. More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 7.9 Ti-6Al-4V bar. Acicular α and prior-beta grain boundaries resulted from heating the bar at 1010 °C (1850 °F), which is above the beta transus, for 1 h and water quenching. Etchant: 10%HF-5%HNO 3 . Original magnification: 500× More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 7.13 Ti-6Al-4V. Acicular alpha structure and prior-beta grain boundaries formed on heating at 1060 °C (1940 °F) for ½ h and air cooling. Etchant: 10%HF-5%HNO 3 . Original magnification: 100× More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 7.31 (a) Acicular alpha (transformed beta) and prior-beta grain boundaries in bar forged 50% from 1065 °C (1950 °F), reheated at 730 °C (1350 °F) for 2 h, and air cooled. (b) Platelike and equiaxed alpha with some beta present in bar forged 50% from 980 °C (1800 °F), reheated at 730 °C More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 7.33 Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V bar. (a) Acicular alpha and prior-beta grain boundaries in bar forged 70% from 1150 °C (2100 °F), reheated at 790 °C (1450 °F) for 8 h, and furnace cooled. (b) Equiaxed alpha and intergranular beta in bar forged 70% from 1010 °C (1850 °F), reheated at 790 °C (1450 °F More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 7.34 Ti-6Al-4V bar. (a) α′ + β; prior beta grain boundaries. (b) Primary α and α′ + β. (c) Primary α and α′ + β. (d) Primary α and metastable β. (e) Acicular α + β; prior beta grain boundaries. (f) Primary α and acicular α + β. (g) Primary α and acicular α + β. (h) Primary α and β. (i More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 6.9 Composition profiles across grain boundaries obtained by a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (DSTEM) in a 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel irradiated to 2 to 5 × 10 21 n/cm 2 in a steam-generated heavy water reactor (SGHWR) at 288 °C (550 °F). Data are compared More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 6.11 Compositional profiles across grain boundaries obtained by D-STEM from a low-strain, high-purity type 348 stainless steel swelling-tube specimen irradiated to 3.4 × 10 21 n/cm 2 at 288 °C (550 °F) in a BWR. Source: Ref 6.45 More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 2.27 Grain boundaries act as barriers to slip by dislocations. Source: Ref 2.1 More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 6 AFM image of an Al-Cu bond pad. The grain boundaries are clearly visible. More
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Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 3-44 Prior-austenite grain boundaries in four different martensitic steels revealed with different etchants. More
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Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 3-45 Prior-austenite grain boundaries in a martensitic low-carbon sheet steel revealed by etching with Marshall’s reagent, 15 s, 150×. (Courtesy of A. O. Benscoter, Bethlehem Steel Corp.) More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 11 Ferrite vein crack occurring in the prior-austenite grain boundaries of weld metal deposited on A709-grade 50W More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.50 Interaction between grain boundaries and second-phase particles. This interaction may be sufficient to balance the driving force for grain growth, stabilizing the grain size D is the diffusion coefficient and γ is the interfacial energy. Source: Adapted from Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.59 McQuaid-Ehn test sample with austenitic grain boundaries marked by a network of cementite produced by carburization of the specimen surface. Courtesy of S. Bruschi, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.62 Quench crack in prior austenitic grain boundaries. During heating for quenching there was excessive austenitic grain growth. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of M.M. Souza, Neumayer-Tekfor, Jundiaí, Brazil. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.5 Crack following prior austenitic grain boundaries in AISI 410 steel subjected to corrosion testing according to NACE TM 0177 standard. Courtesy of A. Zeemann, Tecmetal, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 1.2 Crystal structure of the grains and the nature of the grain boundaries More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.19 Pearlite nodules (dark areas) formed on prior-austenite grain boundaries, indicated by white lines. Slow-quenched 1095 steel. Nital etch. Original magnification: 600 × More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 8.11 Segregation of solute atoms to grain boundaries and resultant solute drag More