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grain boundaries

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-packed, and body-centered cubic. It then describes the four main divisions of crystal defects, namely point defects, line defects, planar defects, and volume defects. The chapter provides information on grain boundaries of metals, processes involved in atomic diffusion, and key properties of a solid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the typical compositional ranges of superalloys, the role of major base metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel), and the effects of common alloying additions. It describes how chromium, aluminum, and titanium as well as refractory elements, grain-boundary elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...- and fine-grained steels. The chapter also discusses grain-refinement processes and some of the effects of overheating, including sulfide spheroidization, grain-boundary sulfide precipitation, and grain-boundary liquation. austenitization carbon steel grain boundary grain growth grain size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... tension acting on grain-boundary segments contributes to grain growth and how the formation of new grains, driven by phase transformations and recrystallization, lead to a reduction in average grain size. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements on grain growth rates, particularly the curbing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract This chapter examines the effect of heat treating and other processes on the microstructure-property relationships that occur in superalloys. It discusses precipitation and grain-boundary hardening and how they influence the phases, structures, and properties of various alloys. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... (duplex), and precipitation hardening stainless steels. It also describes solidification sequences and explains how chromium carbides may segregate to grain boundaries at certain temperatures, making grain boundary regions susceptible to intercrystalline or intergranular corrosion. austenitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... high-angle grain boundaries. During recovery, there are several basic types of processes that occur: (1) the annihilation of excess point defects, particularly vacancies; (2) the rearrangement of dislocations into lower-energy configurations, which also annihilates many of them; and (3) the formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... grain structure, as in columnar-grained alloys, or by the elimination of grain boundaries as with single-crystal superalloys. dispersion strengthening precipitation hardening solid-solution hardening superalloys SUPERALLOYS ARE STRENGTHENED through three principal mechanisms: solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the context in which metallography is used and some of the challenges of analyzing three-dimensional structures from a two-dimensional perspective. It describes the hierarchical nature of metals, the formation of grain boundaries, and the notable characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter explores the behavior of stainless steel in media that promote corrosion. The forms of corrosion covered are uniform corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, localized corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and grain boundary corrosion. The chapter discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... surface film. It describes bulk and surface reactions that contribute to SCC, including dissolution, mass transport, absorption, diffusion, and embrittlement, and their role in crack nucleation and growth. It also discusses crack tip chemistry, grain-boundary interactions, and the effect of stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... decarburization or the buildup of brittle carbides on the grain boundaries of an austenitic stainless steel by the process known as sensitization. cast iron decarburization deformation heat treatment microstructure sensitization solidification steel IN THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER, it was shown how a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., hydrogen atoms can be absorbed at the surface and then diffuse into the metal. Hydrogen atoms in the metal then react with iron carbide forming methane gas which can accumulate at grain boundaries and other interfaces. The chapter describes two applications, one in coal-fired boilers, the other in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... comparing the effects of selective etching procedures on various phase constituents in cast aluminum-silicon alloys. The compilation of images demonstrates the use of two types of reagents: those that reveal discontinuities in crystal orientation and grain boundaries, and those that reveal differences in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... determination of the compositions of individual grains, provided that the microscope is equipped with suitable attachments for composition analysis. Optical microscopy (OM) is a basic technique for phase identification. There is tremendous value in examining a sample optically because many phases can be...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... grain boundaries, while gas porosity occurs throughout the matrix. Table 7.1 Volume changes on melting Metal Crystal structure (a) Volume change on melting, % Al fcc 6.0 Au fcc 5.1 Cu fcc 4.2 Zn hcp 4.2 Ag fcc 3.8 Pb fcc 3.5 Fe bcc 3.4 Sn bct 2.8...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... – 21 10.1007/s11665-006-9002-2 21. Lobkovsky A.E. et al. , Grain Shape, Grain Boundary Mobility and the Herring Relation , Acta Mater. , Vol 52 , 2004 , p 285 – 292 10.1016/j.actamat.2003.09.012 22. Ratke L. , Genau A. , and Steinbach S. , Flow Effects on...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... austenite grain growth hot deformation time-temperature-austenitizing diagram References 8.1 Swarr T.E. and Krauss G. , Boundaries and the Strength of Low Carbon Ferrous Martensites , Grain Boundaries in Engineering Materials , Walter J.L...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... inclusions are present. Very small, but unidentified, inclusions are also present at the grain boundaries ( Fig. 4.1 (Part 1) b ). Heavier etching clearly develops the so-called “α-veining” substructure ( Fig. 4.1 (Part 1) c ) due to etching of subgrain boundaries as well as grain boundaries ( Ref 4 , 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... effect on heat treating results and mechanical properties. A clear distinction also needs to be made between those residual elements that have an effect due to their presence on solid solution, such as Cu, Ni, Cr, and Mo, and those have an effect due to their segregation in grain boundaries, such as Sn...