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gas-blast method

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... cleaning, the workpiece is cleaned by “atomic shot blasting” due to the hydrogen gas ionization. The sputter-clean temperature is ramped up at intervals of approximately 55 °C (100 °F) with an approximate 10 min hold between each successive interval. This ensures proper nitrogen diffusion into the steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
..., abrasive blast cleaning, removal of risers, ingates, and discontinuities, rough inspection, removal of discontinuities, finishing welding, heat treatment, and final visual, dimensional, and NDT inspection. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on these activities. finishing heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
..., producing a bubble. When the bubble bursts, a localized hard spot will form on the exposed steel. Stop-off paint residues can be reduced by brushing or washing, or removed by light blasting with fine abrasives. One method of selective gas nitriding is to plate the areas to be stopped-off using...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... The contamination can be due to decarburization from previous heat treatment operations, machining operations using coolants that contain silicones, or inadequate cleaning after salt bath treatment. Another problem source is contaminated grit on glass bead blast or shot blast. Precleaning is mandatory for both gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... The near-neutral-pH form of SCC is most prevalent on tape-coated pipelines, while high-pH SCC has occurred most frequently on coal-tar-coated pipelines. Fusion-bonded-epoxy (FBE)-coated pipelines are very resistant to SCC. This resistance has been attributed to the grit-blasted surface preparation used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... mechanical methods. Abrasive methods, such as grinding and grit blasting, are preferred for removing heavy scale from large sections. Centerless grinding is used for finishing round bars, and wide belt grinding is used for finishing sheet and strip. Grinding is usually most efficient when it is performed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... caused by metallic contamination. Mechanical Removal Methods Dry or wet abrasive blasting with metal-free abrasives is an effective means of removing metal contamination, as are polishing with ceramic materials and wet tumbling. The shape of a component, the surface finish required...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... the melting temperature. The higher melting temperature permits the use of a higher percentage of steel scrap in the charge. The air blast can be heated externally in a preheater using natural gas, which heats a refractory-lined structure through which the air is passed before it enters the wind box...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... failure map for coating(s) applied on cylindrical button. Courtesy of Sulzer Metco Inc. Bond Test Step by Step Inspect coating quality on bond caps. (Coating chipping, cracks, delamination, separation, overspray, are not allowed.) Prepare mating caps—grit blast their flat surface. (Do...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... to abrasive wear. (3) The process of grind- ing or wearing away through the use of abrasives. See also high-stress abrasion and low-stress abrasion. abrasive. (1) A hard substance used for grinding, honing, lapping, su- perfinishing, polishing, pressure blasting, or barrel finishing. Abrasives in common use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... °F), the plasma generation voltage is started and the part is then sputter cleaned under hydrogen gas up to the appropriate nitriding temperature. Sputter cleaning can be likened to “atomic shot blasting,” that is, cleaning by ionic bombardment. This is the procedure used to preclean the work...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... blast and the cleaning medium is the steel shot. In this instance the gas ion is like the steel shot, and the electrical imbalance is like the air blast. The surface becomes atomically cleaned. Iron and other contaminants are removed from the surface of the work by an action known as sputtering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Preparation A variety of surface preparation methods are available, including the following: Solvent or chemical washing Steam cleaning Hand tool cleaning Power tool cleaning Water blasting Abrasive blast cleaning Table 1 lists the uses and applicable standards...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... gases. Flue gases are collected near the furnace top and directed to stoves or heat exchangers called Cowper stoves . The furnace blast of air is circulated through the heat exchanger, creating a hot blast that improves the thermal efficiency. Oil, tar, natural gas, and powdered coal can be injected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., and limestone are added as layers through an opening at the top of the furnace. Hot air at approximately 900 °C (1650 °F) is blasted into the bottom of the furnace, an area called the bosh, through water-cooled copper nozzles called tuyeres. The oxygen in the air reacts with the coke to form carbon monoxide gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... sand blasting, or possibly some particles may become physically embedded in the surface, but without substantially deforming the surface or firmly bonding to it. In cold spray, the minimum impact velocity necessary to achieve the hydrodynamic shear instability is termed the critical velocity ( V crit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... process chamber to about 900 °C (1650 °F) and holding at that temperature for a few hours. This procedure will “burn” out the nitrogen and cause the chrome to oxidize, thus forming chrome oxide. After the process chamber cools, the surfaces are cleaned by either shot-blasting or sandblasting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the basic steps in the steelmaking process. It explains how iron is reduced from ore in the liquid state through the classic blast furnace process and in the solid state by direct reduction. It discusses the conversion of iron to steel and the technological...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... materials for a blast furnace charge are iron ore, coking coal, and fluxes, mainly limestone. Coke is a spongelike carbon mass that is produced from coal by heating coal to expel the organic matter and gasses. In a process called carbonization, blended coal is first heated in ovens to produce coke. The gas...