1-20 of 326 Search Results for

gas segregation

Sort by
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., or bar stock. For both castings and wrought products, the solidification process has a major influence on both the microstructure and mechanical properties of the final product. B.1 The Liquid State The liquid state is intermediate between a gas and a crystalline solid. Liquids possess neither...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and mechanical properties of the final product. 7.1 The Liquid State The liquid state is intermediate between a gas and a crystalline solid. Liquids possess neither the long-range order of solids nor the complete disorder of gases. Liquids do, however, possess short-range order. In fact, the structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... Abstract This chapter considers various behaviors of microstructural interfaces from a thermodynamics viewpoint. It discusses energy of surface and interface, the Gibbs-Thomson Effect, grain-boundary segregation, smooth and rough interfaces, and grain growth. gas molecules grain boundary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... to a discontinuity, such as pipe, or to gas evolution. Nonmetallic inclusions . Generally concentrated toward the center of the ingot during solidification. Many inclusions will appear as pits after hot etching. Metallic segregates . Also concentrated toward the center of the ingot during solidification...
Image
Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 1-6 Hot-acid etching of this disc from an AISI 4140 alloy steel billet revealed entrapped gas, heavy segregation, voids, and ingot pattern. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... as the casting interface. During the cast, a process gas with minute amounts of oil form an air bearing, which insulates and separates the molten metal from the mold. This air bearing generates a smooth outside billet surface with minimum subsurface segregation (liquation). In general, the mold length increases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... to the C + O = CO reaction) during solidification ( Fig. 8.1 and 8.2 ). Rimmed steel took advantage of this reaction to generate gas that would “push” the segregated liquid to central region of the ingots, forming a “rim” of purer steel in the ingot. Rimmed steels were extensively used for flat products...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... with parts having a density of at least 7.2 g/cc. Carburizing Powder metallurgy parts with relatively low combined carbon contents of up to 0.20 wt% can be carburized by conventional pack or gas methods. Liquid carburizing is not recommended because of the difficulty of washing the parts free of salt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... steel is gas metal arc welded with nearly matching filler metal, the resulting dendritic structure is so segregated that the nickel-enriched interdendritic regions do not transform fully to martensite upon cooling. The resulting weld-metal microstructure is not 100% martensite as intended...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... the part in a carbon-rich substance, for example, charcoal. Gas carburizing provides the carbon from a carbon-rich gas, for example, methane (CH 4 ), and liquid carburizing is a process where the part is submerged in a molten salt bath containing a carbon-rich liquid. An example of the microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... with acid leaching for many years, but now vacuum distilling (with possible inert gas sweep) is widely used to produce a pure titanium by more completely removing the magnesium chloride byproduct. Vacuum distilling results in lower residual levels of magnesium, hydrogen, and chlorine than does acid leaching...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
..., etc. For both castings and wrought products, what happens during freezing has a major influence on the microstructure and properties of the final product. Of particular importance are porosity and segregation of alloying elements. The liquid state is intermediate between a gas and a crystal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... of the superalloy. Second, if the product does not require the extremely low gas contents or chemical control that are typical of vacuum primary melt processes, then the superalloy may be EAF/AOD melted, cast as electrode, and consumably remelted. The foremost reasons for using EAF/AOD in preference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... was that dross was inductively stirred into the melt, resulting in poor microcleanliness. Gas porosity was identified as a specific problem, and it was emphasized that baking out both the feed and the mold was necessary to eliminate moisture and to obtain sound castings. Fig. 18.5 Direct chill casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Transformation . Curr. Opin. Solid State Mat. Sci. , Vol 8 , 2004 , p 219 – 37 10.1016/j.cossms.2004.09.003 5. “ Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries—Materials for Use in H 2 S-Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production ,” MR0175/ISO 15156, NACE , 2003 6. Panossian Z...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... its gas content reduced to levels consistent with vacuum production. Scrap, however, has the possibility of having become contaminated during the production process, and care must be taken in the segregation and preparation of scrap materials for vacuum melting. Vacuum induction melting can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
.... Heating for rolling can be done in typical gas-fired pusher or walking-beam furnaces or in high-powered induction furnaces capable of heating a 135 mm (5.3 in.) diam billet from room temperature to a rolling temperature of approximately 1150 °C (2100 °F) in 10 min. Such rapid heating is very effective...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... the mold wall is thus reduced and that from the water impingement directly below the casting mold increased ( Fig. 4.27 ). Fig. 4.27 Direct and indirect cooling in the continuous casting mold for copper alloys 4.4 Segregation and Gas Porosity The solidification in the mold is described...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
.... Suitable for creep-resistant applications with low stresses or where hot corrosion resistance is required Industrial gas turbine engines (GTEs), vanes Ni Forms strengthening γ′ and γ″ precipitates Requires no fcc stabilizer Lower propensity for tcp-phase formation Reduced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., the refined molten metal is atomized by gas or liquid and made to freeze into small particles. These particles, having been quenched extremely rapidly, are quite homogeneous. Powder technology methods allow for the design of alloys that would otherwise freeze with too much segregation and too coarse...