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gas flow rates

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... If the gaseous method of ferritic nitrocarburizing is being used, check the gas flow rates and relative volumes. Next, check the gas decomposition within the furnace. This can be accomplished by a gas analyzer that measures the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contents and adjusts the gas...
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 12.6 Baffle arrangements for improving the shielding for the face of welds. Arrangements that confine the gas enhance coverage with lower gas-flow rates. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... with a sufficiently high flow rate to “unlock” the bed of aluminum oxide. This means that the bed is no longer “slumped,” but activated and bubbling. Great care must be taken not to have the gas flow rate so high that it will blow the aluminum oxide out of the bed. Any previous atmosphere in the bed (e.g...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
..., for the first time, mass-flow-controlled gas flow rate, pressure or flow control of process gas, feedback-controlled gun temperature, the possibility of operating with nitrogen-helium gas mixtures, touch panel parameter input, data logging, and many other advanced features, which translated into the production...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... at the exits of the torches ensure a maximum gas velocity to successfully atomize the metal wire. By using argon plasma as the atomizing medium and heat source, a lower gas flow rate can be used, because the heated gas has a higher velocity and thus a stronger atomization force is applied. Additionally, using...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... a wide range of cooling rates by varying gas pressures, gas velocities, and gas flow patterns. In some cases, gas quenching may not be adequate to achieve the necessary cooling rate for a component, and other quenching methods may need to be considered (i.e., salt bath, fluidized bed, or oil quenching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...., gas, water, liquid hydrocarbon) production, the flow rate influences the corrosion rate of steel in two ways. First, it determines the flow behavior and flow regime. In general terms, this is manifested as static conditions (i.e., little or no flow) at low velocities, stratified flow at intermediate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
...) measured at the torch nozzle is satisfactory. Air is entrained when turbulence is present at the boundary of shielding gas and air. With proper gas-flow rates, standard welding torches, and proper nozzle-to-work distances, contamination from this source can be held within tolerable limits. The most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... materials are the main input to these models. For the case of metallic materials, the deformation is normally considered to be viscoplastic, that is, strain-rate dependent, and hence described as a relationship between the flow stress on one side and the plastic strain, strain rate, and temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... flow modeling is conducted using software tools that can assess production rates for water, oil, and gas to determine the applicable flow regime (e.g., stratified, slug, mist, etc.) and the magnitude of the wall shear stress present from the flow in addition to local turbulence from geometric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...: (Eq 21.7) 2CO ↔ C + CO 2 and (Eq 21.8) CO   +   H 2 ↔ C + H 2 O However, a carburization process based solely on the decomposition of CO would require large flow rates of atmosphere gas to produce appreciable carburizing. The methane enrichment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.... The OSU calorimeter uses four discrete silicon carbide heating elements. The heat release rate is measured by monitoring the temperature rise in the exhaust gas flow. The cone calorimeter uses a heater rod tightly wound into the shape of a truncated cone. The specimens are burned under ambient conditions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... flow rate     (single-orifice nozzle) 200–400 L/min (53–106 gal/min) … Gas flow rate     (single-orifice nozzle) … 20–40 m 3 /min (800–1600 scfm) Metal flow rate 45–90 kg/min (100–200 lb/min) 45–90 kg/min (100–200 lb/min) With increasing market size, some induction furnaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... diffusion rate of diffusion MODERN ARCHEOLOGY teaches that our earliest ancestors evolved in East Africa and then spread very slowly to the rest of the world by a process called migration or diffusion. Figure 7.1 indicates the direction of population flow out of Africa into Europe, Asia, and India...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... with a flow rate of 28 L/min (60 ft 3 /h) is required for this size nozzle. In addition, the use of a trailing gas shield is beneficial, especially when welding heavy-gage materials. Use of these devices will drastically limit the pickup of nitrogen and oxygen during welding. Back gas shielding with argon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... and then flows back down the center of the vessel to heat the part. There is considerable turbulence in the gas flow near the door, which produces higher velocities that stabilize as the gas flows toward the rear. The practical effect of this flow field is that higher heating rates are often encountered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... deviation and take whatever corrective action is necessary ( Fig. 6 ). To accurately control the gas flow, mass flow controllers are used. A mass flow controller can control flow rates ranging from centiliters per hour to liters per hour far more accurately than a conventional flowmeter. All...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... or mold at too high a fill rate in the presence of slags or scums Vortexing during steel pouring from a ladle Steering in the ladle with gas at too high a stir rate Vortexing during drainage in a water model...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in austenitic stainless steels as well as several forms of corrosion associated with welding. The effects of gas-tungsten arc weld shielding gas composition and heat-tint oxides on corrosion resistance are then covered. Microbiological corrosion of butt welds in water tanks is also illustrated. In addition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... metallurgy required. Depending on the process retort size, the usual gas flow consumption rate can be up to approximately 100 L/h. A 600 × 900 mm (24 × 36 in.) furnace would use up to 30 L/h maximum. The reason for low gas consumption is simply because only the gas necessary for the process is used...