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gas flow rates

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... the case depth requirement or, if the case depth is correct, select a lighter load for the hardness test. The second reason is an imbalance of the furnace atmosphere. If the gaseous method of ferritic nitrocarburizing is being used, check the gas flow rates and relative volumes. Next, check the gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... the fluidized bed has been brought to the process temperature, the bed is activated with the process gas, or a gas with a sufficiently high flow rate to “unlock” the bed of aluminum oxide. This means that the bed is no longer “slumped,” but activated and bubbling. Great care must be taken not to have the gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... in.) Welding speed, mm/min (in./min) 500 (20) 380 (15) Arc current, A 185 190 Arc voltage, V 21 26 Gas flow rate, cm 3 /h × 10 4 (ft 3 /h)  Nozzle 23 (8) 34 (12)  Shielding 34 (12) 130 (45) (a) Electrode set back 3.2 mm (⅛ in.) from face of torch nozzle, with nozzle-to-work...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... are available, but for this application, a pump capable of approximately 207 barg (3000 psig) is ordinarily adequate. The flow capacity of the pump should exceed the desired process flow rate by an amount sufficient to allow the pump to cycle on/off intermittently to refill the gas storage tubes. With a process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... geometry so that the plasma jets converge on the metal wire. The supersonic nozzles installed at the exits of the torches ensure a maximum gas velocity to successfully atomize the metal wire. By using argon plasma as the atomizing medium and heat source, a lower gas flow rate can be used, because...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... are not specified in the test procedures, but must be determined separately for each material and/or application. The OSU calorimeter uses four discrete silicon carbide heating elements. The heat release rate is measured by monitoring the temperature rise in the exhaust gas flow. The cone calorimeter uses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... (inert gas calming screen) is necessary. Pure, welding grade argon with a flow rate of 28 L/min (60 ft 3 /h) is required for this size nozzle. In addition, the use of a trailing gas shield is beneficial, especially when welding heavy-gage materials. Use of these devices will drastically limit the pickup...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... ( Ontario ), 1992 24. Manabu I. , Yutaka S. , Ryusuke O. , and Zen-ichiro M. , Evaluation of the Critical Gas Flow Rate Using Water Model for the Entrapment of Slag into a Metal Bath Subject to Gas Injection , Tetsu-to-Hagane (J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn.) , Vol 79 ( No. 5 ), p...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., the net atmosphere composition change during carburizing is a reduction in methane content and an increase in the hydrogen content. In most commercial operations, gas flow rates are high enough and the rate of methane decomposition is low enough to prevent a large buildup of hydrogen during a carburizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... capacity Up to 4500 kg (10,000 lb) Up to 5000 kg (11,000 lb) Melting Open air Open air Atomizing medium Water Argon (nitrogen) Water pressure 11–18 MPa (1500–2500 psi) … Gas pressure … 0.76–2.6 MPa (110–380 psi) Water flow rate     (single-orifice nozzle) 200–400 L/min (53–106 gal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion failure. Discussions with the vendor uncovered two discrepancies. First, the welder was using a large, 19 mm (3/4 in.) inside diameter ceramic nozzle with a gas lens, but was flowing only 19 L/min (40 ft 3 /h) of argon; this was the flow rate previously used with a 13 mm (1/2 in.) inside diameter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... treatments of the problem, for example, for cold spraying of metal-ceramic mixtures ( Ref 3.57 ), that consider particle-particle interaction in the stream. Further, as soon as the particle mass flow rate is a substantial fraction of the total gas mass flow rate, the gas-particle interaction must...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... furnace Sergeson examined the effect of both temperature and process gas flow on alloy steels and found that if the ammonia gas flow rate was increased at 510 °C (950 °F), little difference resulted in the immediate surface hardness and case depth. He also found that as process temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... gas Welding current (c) , A Gas Flow rate, f 3 /h (L/M) 0.010 (0.254) 0.020 (0.508) 0.040–0.060 (1.02–1.52) Ar 12–15 (5.7–7.1) 10–15 0.020 (0.508) 0.030 (0.762) 0.060 (1.52) Ar 12–15 (5.7–7.1) 15–25 0.030 (0.762) 0.030; 0.045 (0.762; 1.14) 0.060 (1.52) Ar 12–15 (5.7–7.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., especially where these consist of molten species. An additional mode of degradation of protective Cr 2 O 3 scale is through oxidation to the volatile chromium trioxide (CrO 3 ), which becomes prevalent above about 1010 °C (1850 °F) and is greatly accelerated by high gas flow rates. As in the case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...-metal arc welding of Ti-6Al-4V plate Table 9.4 Typical conditions for manual and automatic gas-metal arc welding of Ti-6Al-4V plate Plate thickness, mm(in.) Current (DCEP) (a) , A Voltage, V Welding speed, mm/min (in./min) Argon flow rate, L/min (ft 3 h Torch Trailing Backing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Corrosion rate prediction flow chart. Source: Ref 9 Fig. 3 In situ pH determination for production environments. meq/L, milliequivalents per liter. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 4 Corrosion rate of steel as a function of pH and velocity. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 5 Effect of gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... in increasing carburization rates because the process bypasses the several dissociation steps that are required to produce active soluble carbon. For example, because of the ionizing effect of the plasmas, active carbon for adsorption can be formed directly from methane gas. High temperatures can be used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... flow modeling is conducted using software tools that can assess production rates for water, oil, and gas to determine the applicable flow regime (e.g., stratified, slug, mist, etc.) and the magnitude of the wall shear stress present from the flow in addition to local turbulence from geometric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... to 36 μm). Using argon for both the arc and powder-carrying gas systems, deposition efficiencies of approximately 50% were consistently obtained with an arc current of 30 V, an arc-gas flow rate of 1 standard m 3 /h, and a standoff distance of 10 cm (4 in.) between plasma gun and substrate [ Northecutt...