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gamma ray radiography

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses radiography methods using x-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons. It begins with a discussion on the applications and principles of radiography followed by sections providing information on the sources of radiation, classifications, and characteristics of x-ray tubes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... nondestructive testing methods for P/M applications also include electrical resistivity testing, eddy current, and magnetic bridge testing, magnetic particle inspection, ultrasonic testing, x-ray radiography, gas permeability testing, and gamma-ray (γ-ray) density determination. The capabilities and limitations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... permanently on a film or examined on a fluorescent screen. In x-radiography, the size of the flaw can be estimated by using penetrameters. Gamma rays have greater penetrating power than do x-rays and hence can be used for thicker sections. They are obtained by the radioactive decay of isotopes such as cobalt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., provides a cross-sectional view of an inspection object. All the previous terms are mainly used in connection with inspection that involves penetrating electromagnetic radiation in the form of x-rays or gamma rays. Neutron radiography refers to radiographic inspection using neutrons rather than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... has led to a shift toward alternative ultrasonic testing techniques. The radiographic technique uses radiation, either as x-rays or gamma rays, to penetrate the weld to create a latent image on radiographic film. The test piece absorbs radiation, but when flaws are present, less is absorbed than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of available techniques is reduced. For example, x-ray radiography is commonly carried out at the fabrication stage but is generally not a realistic inspection method in service, where gamma radiography is generally employed due to its portability and independence from an external power source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... Specialized equipment required B.7 Radiography Penetration of sample/structure (and subsequent photographic recording) by x-rays or γ-rays. Extent of penetration depends on thickness and on material and its contained cracks and defects. Volumetric incidence/extent/ location/orientation of cracks...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... point object, as focused by a lens system. With monochromatic light, it consists of a central point of maximum intensity surrounded by alternate circles of light and darkness caused by the reinforcement and interference of diffracted rays. The light areas are called maxima and the dark areas minima...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... transducers and parts being inspected. Reference standards are needed, both for calibrating the equipment and for characterizing flaws. Radiography Radiography uses x-rays or gamma rays, which are directed through the sample to a photographic film. After the film has been developed, it can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
..., ultrasonic testing has proven to be a useful tool in failure analysis, particularly in the investigation of large castings and forgings. Radiography Radiography uses x-rays or gamma rays, which are directed through the sample to a photographic film. After the film has been developed, it can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... to the metal being heated. Austenite The face-centered-cubic phase of iron. In steel a solid solution in which gamma iron is the solvent. Austenitic Steels Any steel containing sufficient alloy to produce a stable austenitic (gamma iron) crystalline structure at ambient temperature. B Backing Board (backing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... Abstract This chapter presents several materials and processes related to soldering technology. It first provides information on lead-free solders, followed by sections devoted to flip-chip processes, diffusion soldering, and modeling. Scanning acoustic microscopy and fine-focus x-ray...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... This procedure opens the radiation-protected door, exposing the surface of the material to a gamma ray beam. The atoms of the various elements in the metal sample become energized through the loss of an orbital electron. The atoms then revert to their normal electron state by recapturing an electron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... with appreciable ductility. welding, for example). austenite. A face-centered cubic iron (gamma iron) or steel. beryllium-copper. Copper-base alloys contain- austenitizing. Forming austenite by heating a ing not more than 3% Be. ferrous alloy into the transformation range (partial austenitizing) or above...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... interpretation. Radiography, using x-rays, neutrons, or gamma rays, is also often used to examine structures. Film or sensors (charge-coupled devices) pick up the emitting radiation, with the intensity proportional to the density of the sample. Light areas indicate a dense region, and dark areas indicate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.sch6.9781627083546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.9781627083409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9