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gamma double prime

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... 3 (rare) in virtually all superalloy types; gamma prime (γ′) fcc ordered Ni 3 (Al,Ti); gamma double prime (γ″) bct ordered Ni 3 Nb; eta (η) hexagonal ordered Ni 3 Ti; and the delta (δ) orthorhombic Ni 3 Nb intermetallic compounds in nickel- and iron-nickel-base superalloys. The γ′, γ″, and η phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... The development and utilization of physical metallurgy-based microstructure models and the integration of the models with finite-element analysis has allowed for microstructure prediction by computer. Two important microstructural features of superalloy forgings are the grain size and the gamma-prime...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., and their strength at temperatures exceeding those at which the gamma-prime and gamma-double-prime precipitates in the nickel and nickel-iron alloys dissolve. Effects of Carbides and Alloying Elements As previously noted, Stellite 21 was an early type of cobalt-base heat resistant alloy that is used now...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... One form (alpha prime, or α′) has the hexagonal close-packed lattice while the other (alpha double-prime, or α”) is body-centered tetragonal. Little information is available on the nature of the α” variant, but it is believed to be strain-induced martensite, which is produced in metastable structures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
...-two + gamma) or three-phase (alpha-two + gamma + beta) near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys during ingot breakdown and/or rolling suggests that these materials may be prime candidates for superplastic forming. Materials were tested over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. For most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... a number of martensites were reported over the years, the two principal martensites turned out to be alpha prime and alpha double prime. Alpha prime, appearing as an acicular phase, is hexagonal in crystal lattice structure but similar in microstructural appearance to acicular alpha. (Acicular alpha...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... are hexagonal α′ (alpha prime) and orthorhombic α″ (alpha double-prime), as shown in Fig. 4.7 . The most prevalent is the α′, which is formed mostly in low-alloy-content titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V. The α” usually occurs in more highly alloyed material, such as Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo, particularly alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... surface etches out white in appearance above the nitrided case. The zone is called “compound” due to the presence of more than one phase ( Fig. 1 ). Two phases generally are present in the compound zone: the epsilon (ε) phase, which has a chemical formula of Fe 2-3 N, and the gamma prime (γ′) phase, which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... The other age-hardenable alloy is a more nickel-rich alloy with a composition of 36% Co, 19% Cr, 7% Mo and balance nickel. Hardening of MP159 alloy occurs from the precipitation of gamma prime (γ′), Ni 3 (Al, Ti), which also is encouraged by the addition of 3 wt% Ti. High strength and general corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... side, the nickel-base system has been the most widely and successfully exploited of any alloy base in the development of high-strength high-temperature alloys because of the occurrence of unique intermetallic phases such as gamma prime (γ′) and gamma double prime (γ″). On the negative side...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... instead, the part shall be stress relieved at 160 to 280 °C (325 to 540 °F) after grinding. Removal of white layer by chemical means is not advisable. Allowable white layer should not exceed 0.0127 mm (0.0005 in.) and shall be of single-phase Fe 4 N (gamma prime iron) composition. For selective ion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...) doubles the reaction rate. Once recrystallization is complete, further heating causes grain growth to occur. Recrystallization and Degree of Cold Work As the amount of cold work increases, recrystallization occurs at lower temperatures and at shorter times. A plot of the recrystallization...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.9781627082693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... a microscope. For this reason, the layer is called the “white layer” and consists of a mixture of gamma prime and epsilon iron nitrides. Below the compound nitride zone is the diffusion zone containing precipitated alloy nitrides. From the mechanical strength viewpoint, the white layer is very hard and brittle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... the high-temperature and low-temperature delta and alpha ferrite fields expand. At approximately 12% Cr, bcc ferrite is completely stable from room temperature up to the melting point. As the ferrite field expands, the austenite field contracts, producing what is often referred to as the gamma (γ) loop...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... to form body-centered tetragonal (bct) Ni 3 Nb, which is coherent with the gamma matrix. This phase is called g amma double prime (γ″). This phase provides very high strength at low to intermediate temperatures but is unstable at temperatures above approximately 650 °C (1200 °F). This precipitate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... a degree of alloying in order to increase strength as well as creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, which are often a few hundred degrees below the working temperature. This is done through a combination of solid-solution strengthening, precipitation of gamma prime [Ni 3 (Ti, Al...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... into the gamma loop, and when cooled, austenite transforms into ferrite. This transformation forms the basis for the heat treatable martensitic stainless steels. The extent of the gamma loop in iron-chromium alloys also can be greatly expanded by the addition of carbon and nitrogen. For example, Fig. 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... that adding carbon to iron favors the existence of austenite over ferrite. This occurs because carbon decreases the temperature of the austenite to α-ferrite transition (the A 3 point) and also increases the temperature of the austenite to δ-ferrite transition. Thus, carbon expands the gamma field...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... element in the Earth’s crust. The known commercially mineable deposits of titanium ore are available throughout the world and are not isolated to geopolitically unstable regions. Also, the industry’s capacity to produce sponge and melt ingots is nearly double the demand. Therefore, the availability...