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furnace equipment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter, a detailed account of furnaces and related equipment for heat treating, begins by describing three basic modes of heat transmission, namely conduction, convection, and radiation, followed by a discussion on the working principle, applications, advantages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... reactions that occur during annealing: decarburization and scaling. Information on the gases and gas mixtures used for controlled atmospheres is then provided. The second part of the chapter focuses on the processes involved in normalizing, along with information on furnace equipment for normalizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... the presses and auxiliary equipment for tube extrusion, induction furnaces for billet processing, handling systems for copper and aluminum alloy products, extrusion cooling systems, and age-hardening ovens. Next, the chapter describes the principles and applications of equipment for the production of aluminum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
...) have higher efficiencies than conventional furnaces and cost about one-half as much as comparable induction equipment. Both induction power supplies and gas furnaces have very long service lives. Because of this, amortization of both types of equipment is readily spread over 5 to 10 years or even...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... This meant that the equipment operator was usually very heavily involved in ensuring that several aspects of the process were followed. While these furnaces may have produced consistent loads of product with a reasonable reliability, the level of operator attention and skill required often affected the final...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... (1750 °F), most furnace equipment has an increasingly limited life, causing the carburizing temperature to be limited. Carburizing may be done in a gaseous environment (gas carburizing), a liquid salt bath (liquid carburizing), or with all the surfaces of the workpiece covered with a solid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... (760 °C). Basic equipment considerations seldom differ from those influencing the selection of furnaces for heat treating stainless steel. In general, the temperature-control limits are ±25 °F (±14 °C), and temperatures may range up to about 2350 °F (1290 °C). Generally, superalloy component heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... of the furnace equipment was mandatory. Fig. 7 Process audit form for heat operation. Source: J.L. Dossett, unpublished work In-process tests should be selected to produce critical information, but this information must be rapidly and economically analyzed to allow for rapid response to problems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...) is approximately 40% greater than at 870 °C (1600 °F). The temperature most commonly used for gas carburizing is 925 °C (1700 °F). This temperature permits a reasonably rapid carburizing rate without rapid deterioration of furnace equipment. The carburizing temperature is sometimes raised to 955 or 980 °C (1750...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... (1360 to 1450 °F); 0.90 to 1.40 C, 760 to 790 °C (1400 to 1450 °F). Atmosphere furnaces, salt baths, vacuum furnaces, or lead pots may be used for annealing. Heating equipment requirements include reasonably accurate temperature control and a means of preventing decarburization when required...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... ). In terms of equipment cost per kilowatt available for heating, this has actually resulted in a decrease in cost after adjustment for inflation ( Fig. 1.2 ). Fig. 1.1 Conversion efficiency of induction heating power supplies. From R. W. Sundeen, Proceedings, 39th Electric Furnace Conference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... of the ac power supply. The important types are line-frequency (50/60 Hz) and medium-frequency (180 Hz to 10 kHz) units. The line-frequency furnace is used primarily for high-tonnage applications (3 to 40 tons), whereas medium-frequency equipment finds its greatest use in applications ranging up to 5 tons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... charge may require very large and expensive handling equipment that might be in use only a few minutes each hour. It is therefore preferable to charge induction furnaces with two or more buckets which can be stored until the furnace is ready to accept them. As discussed by Alexander, [10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... the propensity for steel to crack. The holding time is dependent on geometrical factors related to the furnace (emissivities, temperature, and atmosphere composition) and load (type of steel and thermophysical properties). Annealing: Heat treatment consisting of heating and soaking at suitable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., is critical and may vary between slow furnace cooling to sudden cooling by quenching in water. Pure iron is allotropic, meaning that its crystalline structure can assume more than one structure. When pure iron solidifies on cooling from its melting point...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... if the flame does not contact the surface of the part and the atmosphere is slightly oxidizing. Heat zones should be uniform in temperature. Portable furnaces reduce handling between furnace and forming equipment. Insulating blankets reduce heat losses during transfer of heated blanks from the furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... in a suitable furnace, the piece is transferred to the holding furnace. Tilting furnaces now are equipped with an interactive mode, accessed by pressing an individual control button, or a fully automatic control system, including the flow of aluminum with the control of the furnace tilt angle. The melt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... kinetics) to happen became economically inviable. This led to transferring a part of the refining operations to other equipment prepared to receive and process liquid steel. These are called secondary metallurgy operations. Particularly important was the development of “ladle furnaces” that could receive...