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furnace atmosphere

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... section of the chapter describes the types of atmospheres available, emphasizing their applications and limitations. batch-type furnaces conduction heating continuous-type furnaces convection heating fluidized bed furnaces furnace equipment heat treating furnaces liquid bath furnaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... Abstract This chapter discusses the sintering process for stainless steel powders and its influence on corrosion resistance. It begins with a review of sintering furnaces and atmospheres and the effect of temperature and density on compact properties such as conductivity, ductility, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... steel transfer ladle into which the steel has been poured after the basic oxygen or electric arc processes are complete. By conducting these refining processes outside the steelmaking furnace, valuable steelmaking resources are freed up. In addition, reducing atmospheres are more easily applied for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... reactions that occur during annealing: decarburization and scaling. Information on the gases and gas mixtures used for controlled atmospheres is then provided. The second part of the chapter focuses on the processes involved in normalizing, along with information on furnace equipment for normalizing. In...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... quenched under certain conditions; and, finally, moved out of the quench vessel or furnace. The temperature, and frequently the atmosphere condition, must be controlled precisely in order to achieve the desired metallurgical results. In order to ensure the repeatability of the operation, the heat treating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... desired objectives of quenching, annealing, and aging along with the associated risks of surface damage caused by oxidation, carbon pickup, alloy depletion, intergranular attack, and environmental contaminants. It also discusses heat treatment atmospheres, furnace and fixturing requirements, and practical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... after the basic oxygen or electric arc processes are complete. By conducting these refining processes outside the steelmaking furnace, valuable steelmaking resources are freed up. In addition, reducing atmospheres are more easily applied for de-sulfurization. Vacuum degassing is also possible with the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses material-related problems associated with coal-fired burners. It explains how high temperatures affect heat-absorbing surfaces in furnace combustion areas and in the convection pass of superheaters and reheaters. It describes how low-NOx combustion technology...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... separately in this chapter, the other laboratory tests covered under this category are simulated atmosphere tests, salt-spray tests, and immersion tests. Only corrosion testing in the atmosphere is discussed in the section on field tests. Corrosion monitoring techniques are finally considered, covering the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Temperature uniformity Similar to box furnace, but has removable car hearth assembly High-speed heating with afterburner Furnaces may be small or huge, occupying the space of an entire building. Are cost-effective only if units are operated on a regular basis Lack atmospheric support Lack flexibility Pit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the design and operation of melting furnaces as well as melting practices and the role of fluxing. It also discusses casting methods, nonferrous casting alloys, and atomization processes used to make metal powders. atomization foundry casting melting furnaces nonferrous casting alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 2.4 2.3 1.5 O 2 2.9 1.0 1.1 CH 4 4.0 2.0 0.9 H 2 S 18 24.2 0.6 SO 2 /COS 0.2 0.27 0.04 Methyl mercaptan 0.17 0.51 0.002 Source: Ref 13 As the flue gas stream rises to the upper furnace and enters into the superheater bundles, the oxidizing atmosphere...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... alloys. It also discusses corrosion protection methods for furnace waterwalls and superheater tubes in waste-to-energy boilers. corrosion corrosion protection superheaters waste incinerators waste-to-energy boilers References 1. Krause H.H. , Historical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... crucible. In constant operation, if a furnace is not to be opened to the atmosphere, all charge material for a heat will be added by this process. Older VIM furnaces may have been designed as single-chamber furnaces wherein the molds into which the charge is to be poured are put inside the furnace at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... carefully designed to prevent infiltration of oxygen. Flame curtains, such as used with furnaces, can be used. When inert atmospheres such as argon, helium, or nitrogen are used, the envelope surrounding the part being heated must be kept free of oxygen for complete protection. Another method uses a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... operating ranges, from small batch furnaces to continuous furnaces for large-scale production. The process atmosphere depends on the material, ranging from air for oxide ceramics to vacuum for reactive metals. Measurement of the progress in sintering includes changes in dimensions, density, and properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... principal mode of heating is radiation and the protective atmosphere is argon or nitrogen, both of which are inert gases. Tempering with atmospheres of inert gas is, however, more expensive and requires a gastight atmosphere furnace. For complete protection, the furnace must be purged with the inert gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... internal aluminum nitrides (needle shape) that formed underneath the external oxide scale and internal oxides in alloy 601 exposed to a furnace oxidizing atmosphere for about 4 to 5 years at temperatures probably between 760 and 870 °C (1400 and 1600 °F), as shown in Fig. 4.5 . Fig. 4.5 Formation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
...,” Publication 114: Low-Alloy Steels , Iron and Steel Institute , London , 1968 , 31 – 36 12. Edenhofer B. , Progress in the Technology and Application of In-Situ Atmosphere Production in Hardening and Case-Hardening Furnaces , Proc. of the Second International Conf. in Carburizing and...