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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... discussion on the causes of the various forms of corrosion associated with liquids, namely pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and erosion corrosion. The chapter also contains tables listing corrosion rates of sulfuric acid and fuming sulfuric acid. It...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the epoxy encapsulant. The type of epoxy used and the composition of the die and bonds determine the best etchant. Typically, injection molded devices are etched with yellow or red fuming nitric acid. Yellow fuming or 90% nitric is used to expose the wire loops then red fuming nitric is used to finish...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... stainless steel usually require subsequent cleaning, typically by grinding or milling. Chemical cleaning of all surfaces of cut pieces to remove heat tint, fume deposits, and other contaminants is advisable. Soldering and brazing are possible with all stainless steels. Soldering is done below 450 °C...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... resist H 2 S and CO 2 gases at temperatures up to approximately 260 °C (500 °F). Exposure to liquid or gaseous oxygen, nitrogen tetroxide, or red fuming nitric acid can cause titanium to react violently under impact loading. Wet chlorine has essentially no effect on titanium; titanium is used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... Usually, these machines cannot be started unless the shield is in position. When mounting specimens, especially using cold mounting compounds such as epoxy, proper ventilation is mandatory to protect the metallographer from exposure to the toxic fumes. A hooded area is needed for this purpose. Also, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... which no knife-line attack was observed even at temperatures as high as 70 °C(160 °F). In inhibited fuming HNO 3 containing at least 0.1% hydrofluoric acid (HF), no knife-line attack was observed for any commercial aluminum alloy or weldment even at 70 °C(160 °F). Although titanium and its alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... vapors or fumes will be toxic if inhaled or will be damaging to the eyes. A hood will prevent the working area from being contaminated with these fumes. However, you will not be protected when your head is inside the hood. In most cases, a protective plastic or shatterproof glass shield can be drawn...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... species depleted, metal in crevice becomes anode, HCl formed in crevice Stress-corrosion cracking Cracking under stress, abbreviated as stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) Only in extreme cases (absolute methanol, red fuming nitric) for commercially pure titanium. Ti-6Al-4V can exhibit SCC in chloride...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... Stainless steel cathode. 20–40 s in fuming nitric acid … Noland et al. [1948] 2. For examination under polarized light, no etch is necessary. To develop contrast for bright-field work, 2 vol% hydrofluoric acid may be used. … Mott and Haines [1951] 3. Room temperature for 10–30 s in solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...–60 60 (140) 0.01–0.02 30–50 100 (212) 0.10–0.18 5–20 100 (212) 0.02 30–60 190 (374) 1.5–2.8 70 270 (518) 1.2 20 290 (554) 0.4 70 290 (554) 1.1 Nitric acid, white fuming Liquid or vapor Room Nil ... 82 (180) 0.152 ... 122 (252) <0.127 ... 160 (320...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... Promote slag detachability Produce a smooth weld contour Reduce spatter and fume The slag that forms during welding covers the hot weld metal and protects it from the atmosphere. Welding slag consists of the glass-forming components of the flux, as well as inclusions that form in the weld pool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
...) Temperature and pressure applied to ensure same density liquid and vapor Catalytic 110–160 °C (230–320 °F) Nitrogen atmosphere doped with fuming nitric acid to depolymerize polyacetal Another variant involves solvent vapor degreasing, wherein hot solvent fumes condense on the cooler compact and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... 2002 ]. Chronic beryllium disease is primarily a granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, mist, or fumes containing beryllium (as metallic, oxide, salt, etc.). (A granulomatous disease is a disease in which a tumorlike granulation or scarring is developed as a reaction to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... they contain inhibitors. Strong oxidizers, including anhydrous red fuming nitric acid and 90% H 2 O 2 , also cause attack. Ionizable fluoride compounds, such as NaF and HF, activate the surface and can cause rapid corrosion; dry chlorine gas is especially harmful. Unalloyed titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... stimulate SCC have been discovered over the years. In the mid-1950s, numerous titanium alloys were found to be susceptible to SCC in red-fuming nitric acid ( Ref 10.3 , 10.4 ). In the same period, laboratory creep testing of titanium alloy turbine blades revealed SCC under chloride salt deposits at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Painting is probably the most widely used engineering coating used to protect steel from corrosion. There are a wide variety of coating formulations that have been developed for outdoor exposure, marine atmospheres, water immersion, chemical fumes, extreme sunlight, high humidity, and moderately high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... resistance. At temperatures up to approximately 150 °C (300 °F), tantalum forms a thin stable oxide film (Ta 2 O 5 ) that has corrosion resistance similar to glass, being attacked by only fluorides, fuming sulfuric acid (oleum), free sulfur trioxides, and strong caustics. It is used in heat exchangers where...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... cured under high pressure, the potential for bondline starvation exists due to excessive flow and squeeze-out. Viscosity control of two-part adhesives is usually done with metallic and/or nonmetallic fillers. Fumed silica is frequently added to provide slump and flow control. Many adhesives are of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... solutions Moist H 2 S gas Seawater Molten Na-Pb alloys Stainless steels Acid chloride solutions such as MgCl 2 and BaCl 2 NaCl-H 2 O 2 solutions Seawater H 2 S NaOh-H 2 S solutions Condensing steam from chloride waters Titanium Red fuming nitric acid The precondition of a tensile stress...