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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... spraying is a well-established surface engineering technology in the gas turbine sector, especially in producing thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that can withstand the high fuel gas temperature needed for efficient engine operation and low pollutant emissions. TBCs for land-based and aerospace gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... by a spark. The high-temperature, high-pressure detonation wave moving down the barrel heats the powder particles to their melting points or above and accelerates them to a velocity of about 750 m/s. By changing the fuel gas and some other parameters, the detonation gun process achieves velocities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... is the oxyacetylene welding torch. The simplest and most frequently used oxyfuel gas welding system consists of compressed gas cylinders, gas pressure regulators, hoses, and a welding torch. Oxygen and fuel are stored in separate cylinders. The gas regulator attached to each cylinder, whether fuel gas or oxygen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... there are hot combustion gases. In watertube boilers, the fuel is combusted in a central chamber (furnace, bed, or grate) and the combustion gas transfers heat energy, through radiation and convection, to the water circulating through the tubes. The water tubes are connected to a steam drum at the top and one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... cobalt-base alloys corrosion resistance gas turbines hot corrosion nickel alloys 9.1 Introduction During combustion in the gas turbine, sulfur from the fuel reacts with sodium chloride from ingested air at elevated temperatures to form sodium sulfate. The sodium sulfate then deposits...
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 9.7 Test specimens alloy HR-160, 625, 800H, RA330, and Type 310 at 900 °C (1650 °F) in the combustion gas stream generated by a burner rig using No. 2 fuel oil (0.4% S) for combustion at 35:1 air-to-fuel ratio and with injection of 50 ppm sea salt into the combustion gas stream. During More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Station for three austenitic stainless steels (Type 316, 321, and 347) and a 12Cr ferritic steel (12Cr, 0.5Mo, 0.25V). The boiler was operated under base-load conditions with 0.5% O 2 in flue gas. The analysis of the fuel oil used during testing showed 3.54% S, 91 ppm V, and 71 ppm Na. The test results...
Image
Published: 01 January 2017
dpa at 418 °C (785 °F), 2.77 dpa at 255 °C (490 °F), and 3.02 dpa at 481 °C (900 °F) in an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) ( Ref 6.30 ). Cracking of the AGR fuel cladding occurred during storage in a spent fuel pond. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... are submerged arc, gas metal arc, gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, plasma powder spray, thermal spray, oxy-fuel metallizing, electron beam, resistance brazing, induction brazing, and laser welding. When using an arc welding process or any process which results in a homogeneous structure, a multipass weld procedure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...-distribution impeller ( Ref 3 ). Most RDF units burn the fuel in suspension ( Ref 3 ). RDF units also employ moving grates. Combustion gas temperatures are generally at or below approximately 1090 °C (2000 °F) in mass-burning units and approximately 1315 to 1370 °C (2400 to 2500 °F) in RDF units ( Ref 7...
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 12.2 Mass-burning unit of different design involving multiple passes for the flue gas stream before entering the superheaters. Also shown is the grate where the fuel is combusted. Source: Ref 17 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... Abstract The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) investigates approaches for managing Canada's used nuclear fuel. As part of a larger program investigating concepts of copper coatings, NWMO has begun exploring copper cold spray in collaboration with the National Research Council...
Image
Published: 30 November 2013
Fig. 10 Severe localized erosion-corrosion of two gasoline-fueled engine exhaust valves made from a nickel-base superalloy operating between 1400 and 1500 °F. The exhaust gas damage in the underhead radius and stem was identified as lead oxide corrosion, aggravated by bromine from the gasoline. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
..., wind, fuel cells, bio-fuels, biomass, and solar are just a few examples of where thermal spray can play a role in renewable energy solutions in addition to the more traditional fossil fuel areas such as coal, gas, and oil. Turbine manufactures and energy producers are aware of these sources of energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...; most of the corrosion encountered in turbines burning liquid fuels can be described as type I hot corrosion, which occurs primarily in the metal temperature range of 850 to 950 °C (1550 to 1750 °F). This is a sulfidation-based attack on the hot gas path parts involving the formation of condensed salts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Energy costs are determined by the base fuel cost and the over-all efficiency of the heating system. On the average, electricity costs about 3.5 times as much as natural gas in recent years ( Fig. 12.1 ). However, heating-system efficiencies can mitigate this difference in fuel cost. Efficiency...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Dew-Point or Cold-End Corrosion Acid dew-point corrosion or cold-end corrosion is quite common in boilers using fossil fuels for steam generation. It is one type of low-temperature corrosion. When sulfur-bearing fuel (all fossil fuels except natural gas) is burned, the sulfur oxidizes to form...
Image
Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 10.7 Selected results for N 2 -sprayed coatings ( d 50 = 42 μm powder) produced during used-fuel container optimization. As-polished coatings sprayed using initial reference parameters with gas temperature ( T g ) = 800 °C (1470 °F) on (a) A36 substrate, and optimized reference More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... heat transfer, excellent heat capacity, and uniformity of behavior over a wide temperature range provides a constant temperature bath for many applications. The advent of fuel-fired fluidized beds using a gas/air mixture as both the heating and fluidization medium has resulted in fluidized bed furnaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... includes activities such as forming, joining, and assembling. Vehicle use includes fuel and oil consumption during 200,000 km (124,000 miles) of travel. Table 16.4 lists the percentage of the GHG emissions for the four stages of the life cycle of a typical car. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions...