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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... turbines. Other applications include fuel cells, photocatalytic and anti-microbial coatings, and biomaterials or biotechnology uses. These technologies are not sufficiently mature to meet industrial standards and customer needs. However, collaboration among researchers will provide understanding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... spontaneously in the direction dictated by the open-circuit potential of a cell that is positive ( E rxn > 0), a current flows as shown in Fig. 3(a) . This is the case in environmentally caused electrochemical corrosion reactions. It also is the case in fuel cells and batteries (under discharge), in which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... advanced countries, will continue to need new and improved energy solutions. Hydroelectric, wind, fuel cells, bio-fuels, biomass, and solar are just a few examples of where thermal spray can play a role in renewable energy solutions in addition to the more traditional fossil fuel areas such as coal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of aluminum, magnesium, sodium, and other reactive metals; refining of refractory metals; and high-temperature batteries and fuel cells. Table 15.1 summarizes the general applications of molten salt technology in several industries ( Ref 1 ). General applications of molten salt technology in several...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... by research and development programs, many of which were sponsored by USCAR and USAMP in cooperation with national laboratories, colleges, and universities and with supplier industries. Aluminum castings will play an important future role when inevitable electric, hybrid, or fuel-cell technologies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... on hydrogen and fuel cell research. In 2004, the USA-TEAM partnership between the USCAR and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was formed to focus on improving the manufacturing competitiveness of the U.S. automotive industry. In 2011, DOE announced the formation of a new partnership...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...) and direct corrosion (attack in air). Corrosion in Water Solutions Aqueous corrosion always involves an electrolytic cell with a cathode and an anode ( Fig. 12.1 ). It is the opposite of electroplating. The anode is where ions go into solution M → M +n + ne − . The cathode is where electrons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... result has been a strong growth in the use of the leaner ferritic stainless steels in many components. As more exotic propulsion systems and fuel, such as fuel cells and ethanol, emerge, stainless steels may be required to endure the corrosive environments. Introduction The use of stainless steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... cover is built up. A scatter of individual barnacles on a stainless steel surface creates oxygen concentration cells. The portion of the metal surface covered by the barnacle shell is shielded from dissolved oxygen in the water and thus becomes the anode. The result is crevice corrosion under the base...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... reliable, strong, and fracture-resistant parts for airframes, engines, and ultimately, for missile bodies, fuel cells, and satellite components. However, the aluminum industry growth was not limited to these developments. The first commercial applications of aluminum were novelty items such as mirror...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.9781627084284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... while floating the undeslimed pulps at the original starting pH. For the collector, a fatty acid/fuel oil was used. Typically, 2 kg (4 lb) of sodium fluoride along with 1 to 2 kg (2 to 4 lb) of HMP were used per ton of ore. In a typical batch, 82% recovery with a BeO grade of 14 wt% was common when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., the deteriorating effect under normal long-term service condi- tions. acid rain. Atmospheric precipitation with a pH below 5.6 to 5.7. Burning of fossil fuels for heat and power is the major factor in the generation of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, which are converted into nitric and sulfuric acids washed down...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... screw dislocations stacking sequence Problem 1: Low-Density Steels There is significant interest in developing low-density steels to reduce the weight of vehicles and hence their fuel consumption. One method is to dissolve light impurity atoms in Fe. Take a look at the first 20 elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... in a 2 xxx alloy. Precipitation of the very high copper content precipitates on the boundary causes a copper-depleted zone on either side of the boundary. The difference in electrochemical potentials of the copper-depleted zone and the copper-rich matrix form a strong galvanic cell with a potential...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... lots. After entering the data into the spreadsheet, the Excel user clicks on “Tools,” “Data Analysis,” and “ANOVA Single Factor” to obtain the dropdown menu shown in Fig. 17.3 . Fig. 17.3 Excel analysis of variance (ANOVA) menu. The input range highlights the cells containing the data...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS), do not support microbial growth. Low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons, however, can be degraded by microbes. They are taken up by microbial cells, activated by attachment to coenzyme-A, and converted to cellular metabolites within the microbial cell, as shown in Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... required and type of procured charge materials such as T-bars, sows, and ingots are important considerations in the choice of suitable melting equipment. The decision regarding whether to install a centralized melting unit or to use individual melting units for the different production cells depends...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... that concentrate at the metal-oxide interface and stabilize it, again preventing spallation. This type of alloys finds use in high-temperature applications such as planar oxide fuel cells. The high-chromium alloys, when used for corrosion resistance, are usually called super-ferritics . In the 1960s, E-Brite...