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frequency modulation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... application extensions (some of which will be discussed later in this article), system configurations are also regularly upgraded to enable improved capabilities and ease-of-use. Examples of which include enhanced detector arrangements (e.g. integrated high- and low-frequency modules), resolution improvements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... deceases with increasing lock-in frequency [9] . The Effective Spatial Resolution If LIT is applied for failure analysis of integrated circuits, a decisive limitation is its limited spatial resolution. For a point-like heat source lying at the surface of a device, the surface temperature modulation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
.... In addition, the amplitude modulation process will produce sidebands at this frequency and its multiples. Table 3.2 lists those frequencies that are likely to be caused by a simple eccentricity in gear 1. Frequencies due to eccentricity in gear 1 Table 3.2 Frequencies due to eccentricity in gear 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... Many reference marks Usually modulated by running speed of bad gear Resonance Dominant frequency … … Drops off sharply with changes in speed Journal bearing (sleeve bearing) loose in housing Subharmonics of shaft rpm, exactly ½ or ⅓ of rpm … … Looseness may only develop at operating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Post-mortem analysis of photovoltaic modules that have degraded performance is essential for improving the long term durability of solar energy. This article focuses on a general procedure for analyzing a failed module. The procedure includes electrical characterization followed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
..., gear tooth backlash, and misalignment of gears Other factors such as gear dynamics, which are influenced by instability due to shaft critical speeds, natural frequencies of gears, and housing All factors play a role in influencing gearbox vibrations, particularly those related to gear tooth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... packages, fault isolation to pinpoint the exact location of the fail in a fully packaged module has become a challenge nondestructively. Electrical Characterization To fully characterize a failing module received after a standard test sequence is applied, additional electrical probing may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... a jitter-free equivalent time sampling. The two switches are integrated together to form the transceiver module which is coupled to a high- frequency (110 GHz) probe. The emitter PCS is biased with a voltage to achieve high quality signal generation [9] . The newest system has achieved tool specs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... of SiO 2 . A small signal voltage between the source and gate creates an electric field that penetrates the channel and controls its conductivity. Thus modulating the field between the source and gate will modulate the conduction between the source and drain. Fig. 4.15 A MOSFET transistor. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... specimen is electrically stimulated by a power source. The stimulation, however, is repeated at a fixed repetition rate, which is referred to as the lock-in frequency. The periodic excitation of a resistive defect will lead to a periodically pulsating hot-spot. Figure 2 Principle of lock...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... common analog functions, namely phase-locked loop, serializer-deserializer, analog/digital converters, and radio frequency. Lastly, the challenges of creating BIST for analog functions are summarized, along with seven principles that must be exploited to meet these challenges. These principles show how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... the loss in the system, and the more waste heat generated. In particular, the induction heating coil, capacitors, and output transformer constitute a major area of power loss. In tube-type radio-frequency (RF) systems, the plate of the tube may dissipate as much as 50% of the input power. The following...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
..., heat is supplied by electrical induction. When a high-frequency alternating current passes through a coil (or inductor), a magnetic field is set up. If any material capable of conducting electricity is placed within the coil, it is heated in proportion to the square of the amperage multiplied...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... the utility and converts it into a high-frequency output. This chapter begins with a discussion of the types of power supplies and discusses the system elements and their influence on system requirements. Fig. 3.1 Elements of an induction heat-treating system. Source: Ref 1 Types of Power...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.9781627084352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... to be forced because their presence is due to an external source. In addition to forced vibrations, gearboxes may also experience self-excited vibrations due to the effect of vibrations at the natural frequencies of adjacent equipment installed near a gearbox. These are seldom observed, however, and in all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... Figure 9(a) shows single-shot hardening of tooth tips, where the coil encircles the whole gear. This method is very simple and suitable for high-frequency heating of gears with a module up to 3 mm and for smaller gear diameter. In this case, it must be ensured that the tooth flanks are hardened at least...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in the value of the rectified current, amounting for only about five percent of the maximum current value. Alternating Current Alternating current, which must be single-phase when used directly to magnetize a part, is used directly from commercial power lines at a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. When used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... mode, the probe is set into mechanical oscillation by applying an AC signal to a piezoelectric transducer affixed to the probe holder. This causes the cantilever to oscillate mechanically in the z direction. The frequency of oscillation is chosen to be at or near the probe’s natural resonant frequency...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... designs, high density multi-chip packages, such as multi-chip modules (MCM) and 2.5/3D packages, are consistently emerging as an alternative to pure silicon scaling. As these packaging solutions are gaining advantage over System on Chip (SoC) designs, new challenges are arising for technology integration...