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free-standing structures

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., and from and to phases during diffusion-controlled phase transformations and coarsening or dissolution of particles such as carbides. Thus diffusion is essential for the time-dependent approach to equilibrium structures with minima in free energy. Microstructural changes are described in detail...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., discusses the effects of interlaminar free-edge stresses, and explains how to predict the failure of composites using stress and strain criteria as well as the Azzi-Tsai-Hill maximum work theory and the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. laminates ply analysis structural analysis STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
.... As a consequence, there are no free electrons available to conduct electricity. In ionically bonded ceramics, there are very few slip systems along which dislocations may move. This is a consequence of the electrically charged nature of the ions. For slip in some directions, ions of like charge must be brought...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... to form a solid crystalline structure, they are surrounded by a sea of essentially free electrons in what is referred to as a metallic bond. Most metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. The free electrons in the metallic bond are what lead to these characteristic properties. Atoms interact...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... describes some of the alloying variations that have been developed to improve machinability and the mechanisms by which they work. free-machining inclusions lamellar tearing low-carbon structural steels The next group of steels that we can conveniently distinguish can be characterized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... superalloys, precipitate-free zones (PFZ) were evident after heat treatment of some alloys. The shape of γ′ primarily is a function of alloy chemistry. However, heat treatment can effect some changes. Rafting of γ′ can be produced by appropriate heat treatment. (Rafts are long particles of the phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... verification patterns are then reused for manufacturing test of the ICs. The test vectors for functional testing are usually applied at the full speed of the device. The goal of structural testing, on the other hand, is to ensure that the logical circuit structure is defect-free. Test patterns...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... in.). Vacuum annealing facilities were established for this reason and to eliminate descaling-pickling time and attendant metal loss ( Fig. 9.11 ). Fig. 9.11 Continuous vacuum annealing is used to process thin strip free from surface contamination. Courtesy of Timet The alternatives are batch...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., and cast irons. In the past, steel has been described as an alloy of iron and carbon. Today, this description is no longer applicable since in some very important steels, such as interstitial-free steels and some stainless steels, carbon is considered an impurity and is present in quantities of only a few...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... structures free of macrosegregation. Fig. 9 Modern vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnace. (a) 30 ton VAR. (b) Operational components: 1, electrode feed drive; 2, furnace chamber; 3, melting power supply; 4, busbars/cables; 5, electrode ram; 6, water jacket with crucible; 7, vacuum suction port; 8, X - Y...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... rod to be used to manufacture the items Position of sample in part (discards) Mid-thickness ( t /2) at least t distance from any free surface during heat treatment Mid-thickness ( t /2) and at the center of the product width, at least t distance from any free surface during heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and preserves the reacted regions. For high-sulfur (e.g., 0.1 wt% S) free-cutting steels, the sulfuric acid solution must be significantly diluted to achieve acceptable results. The results from sulfur prints are similar to those achieved with the iodine reagent with respect to segregation, bubbles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... there is no autoclave pressure to suppress void formation and since the removal of entrapped air is critical, it may be more difficult to produce consistent void-free parts, especially for larger and thicker parts where the air evacuation paths are longer. The second point is that currently these materials have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...) +Cr The equilibrium for this reaction is: (Eq 2) L n  ( K ) = − Δ G 4575 T where K is the equilibrium constant, and G is the Gibbs free energy. Working through the thermodynamics yields the relationship that summarizes the important relationship among carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
.... Likewise, the node at the end of the free edge can only take one-half of the distributed loads to make up for the total. The rollers and the fixed foundation attached to the horizontal line at the bottom of the model are expressions for boundary constrains used in the older literature. They indicate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
....) Well-defined stereological methods are available for the measurement of the mean spacing between particles in a structure or of the mean free path in a given phase. In many cases, mechanical properties of steels present clear correlations with these structural features ( Ref 20 – 23...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... by the use of supplementary ladle treatments. Steels may then be made deliberately to minimize the interstitial elements carbon and nitrogen, and these are known as interstitial free steels. Strengthening may then partly be achieved by adding other elements, and strictly, perhaps, they cannot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... process that results in a structure of ultrafine β -SiC particles approximately 1 to 2 nm dispersed in a matrix of amorphous silicon oxide and free carbon. Fiber manufacture consists of synthesizing a spinnable polymer, spinning the polymer into a precursor fiber, curing the fiber to crosslink it so...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... Roughness Interface structure Residual stress Almen strips Oxygen content Mechanical Tests Hardness Flat tensile test – free standing coatings Tubular tensile test (TCT) Bond adhesion test ASTM C633 Fatigue – RCB Impact ASTM D5420 Erosion – ASTM Abrasive wear ASTM G65...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... , ASM International , 2001 , p 477 – 479 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003410 5. Repecka L. and Boyd J. , “ Vacuum-Bag-Only-Curable Prepregs That Produce Void-Free Parts ,” SAMPE 2002 , 12–16 May 2002 6. Mantel S.C. and Cohen D. , Filament Winding , Processing...