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free-machining additives

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... information on residual elements, microalloying, grain refinement, mechanical properties, and grain size of these steels. In addition, the effects of free-machining additives are also discussed. carbon steel composition grain size hardenability low-alloy steel PLAIN CARBON STEELS are by far...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... additives free-machining steel heat treatment H-steel AS DISCUSSED IN CHAPTER 2, “Fundamentals of the Heat Treating of Steel,” carbon steels are not strictly allloys of iron and carbon; manganese, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur usually are present in small amounts. This condition has always led...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... composites are generally less machinable than their base-matrix metal. Similarly, powder metals are less machinable than cast or wrought alloys of equivalent chemistry. Most material classes include “free-machining” alloys, which contain alloy additions that increase tool life or chip formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... may be annealed at intermediate stages of reduction or after the final reduction. Typically, this process takes place in a controlled atmosphere to keep surfaces free of oxidation and scaling. When a metal bar is rolled, any increase in width is minimal; however, the metal becomes thinner and longer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... poor machinability of the low-carbon steels, except those containing sulfur or other additive elements, results principally from the fact that the proportion of free ferrite to carbide is high. This situation can be modified by putting the carbide into its most voluminous form—pearlite—and dispersing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... 11. Wang W.-F. , Effect of MnS Powder Additions on Corrosion Resistance of Sintered 304L Stainless Steels , Powder Metall. , Vol 45 , ( No. 1 ), 2002 , p 48 – 50 10.1179/003258902225001515 12. Henthrone M. , Corrosion of Re-Sulfurized Free-Machining Stainless Steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... Lead, tellurium, sulfur, bismuth, and selenium are added to copper base metals to improve machinability. Free-cutting alloys containing such additions yield small, fragmented chips, making them well suited for highspeed machining operations (i.e., screw machine production). Copper...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... and central ribs 4.76 mm (0.1875 in.) thick are technically feasible. However with pneumatic-hydraulic HERF machines, such results can often be obtained only at the expense of die life in view of their long dwell times. Warm HERF, in comparison to hot HERF, is free of scale and therefore produces better...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...-carbon 1513 0.10–0.16 1.10–1.40 0.040 0.050 … 1527 0.22–0.29 1.20–1.50 0.040 0.050 … 1541 0.36–0.44 1.35–1.65 0.040 0.050 … 1566 0.60–0.71 0.85–1.15 0.040 0.050 … Free-machining 1108 0.08–0.13 0.50–0.80 0.040 0.08–0.13 … 1139 0.35–0.43 1.35–1.65 0.040...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., M42 (b) 180 200 0.020 C-6 250 0.020 CC-6 PH, precipitation-hardenable. Source: Ref 1 (a) Caution: check horsepower requirements on heavier depths of cut. (b) Any premium high-speed steel (T15, M33, M41–M47). (c) Free machining versions. Rather than simply reproducing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... reheater and super-heater tubing used in fossil fuel power plants Modified versions of type 410, for example, type 410S (UNS S41008) and 410 Cb (XM-30 or UNS S41040) Free-machining versions of type 440, for example, type 440F (UNS S44020) and type 440FSe (UNS S44023) Corrosion-resistant, wear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... alloy steels that contain free-machining additives. At best, these additives lower steel quality to some extent, thus partially defeating the purpose of using alloy steels. There are, however, notable exceptions. Consequently, most alloy steels are available with additions of lead or sulfur by special...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... as stringer-type inclusions, interrupting the steel structure and acting as notches. These notches aid the metal-removing action of a cutting tool when a high-speed steel is machined, because the resulting chip is discontinuous, a characteristic of free-machining steels. Very high sulfur additions (up to 0.30...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., and toughness, and they allow tools to be tailored for a wide range of machining applications. The newer cermets are used in semifinishing and finishing of carbon and alloy steels, stainless steels, ductile irons, free-machining aluminum and other nonferrous alloys, and some high-temperature alloys. The metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of grade 1112 free-machining mild steel. The machining blanks, which are typically cut out from beryllium blocks, are usually in a high state of residual stress, which at times may be quite complex. These residual stresses may cause severe machining problems, especially if they continually vary during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... 1939 High-carbon high-vanadium superhigh-speed steels (M4 and T15) 1940 Start of substitution of molybdenum for tungsten 1953 Sulfurized free-machining high-speed steel 1961 Rockwell C 70 high-speed steel (M40 series) 1970 Introduction of powdered metal high-speed steels 1973...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
...), (f), and (i) Necking. (d), (e), and (g) Flange forming. (h) Thread forming. Source: Ref 12.4 The stress state initiated by the spinning process depends strongly on the forming direction ( Fig. 12.5 ). Moving the tool beginning at the mandrel toward the free edge of the sheet initiates...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... into small pieces. For example, lead, nitrogen, calcium, manganese, or phosphorus can be added to carbon and low-alloy steel to improve machinability, while selenium or sulfur are added to stainless steel to achieve improved machinability. Free-machining copper alloys are produced by additions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Hot working reduces the as-cast grain size from approximately 1.0 to 10 mm (0.04 to 0.4 in.) to approximately 0.10 mm (0.004 in.) or less and yields a soft, texture-free structure suitable for finishing by cold working. Cold working increases both tensile strength and yield strength, but it has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...-cutting principle [ Wick et al., 1984 ] This method is fast, efficient, and economical when billets in large quantities are required. Some machines are capable of maintaining the length to within ±0.005 in. (±0.13 mm) as well as maintaining square cuts and ends that are free of burrs, distortion...