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free energy curves

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... energies and chemical potentials, and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from free-energy curves. binary solid solutions chemical potential Gibbs free energy interatomic bonds phase diagrams single-component systems thermodynamics THERMODYNAMICS is a branch of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... major eutectic systems include the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. The chapter discusses the construction of eutectic phase diagrams from free energy curves. It also provides information on peritectic, monotectic, and solid-state reactions in alloy systems. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the principles of corrosion of metals in aqueous environments. The thermodynamics of aqueous corrosion is the subject of the first half of this chapter, which addresses concepts such as corrosion reactions and free-energy change, the relationship between free...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... theoretical strength of an elastic solid should be close to the cohesive strength of the material. This has been demonstrated with defect-free single-crystal whiskers that do indeed approach their theoretical strength. Griffith developed a criterion for the elliptical crack in a plate using an energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites possess many of the desirable qualities of monolithic ceramics, but are much tougher because of the reinforcements. This chapter explains how reinforcements are used in ceramic-matrix composites and how they alter energy-dissipating mechanisms and load...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... under a stress-strain curve of a smooth (unnotched) tension specimen that is loaded slowly to fracture. Notch toughness represents the ability of a material to absorb energy and is measured by using a variety of specimens and test procedures. Engineers began doing this type of fracture testing in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... curves are now identified with the Gibbs free energy, G . However, what is really important in metallurgical processes is not the free energy, G , itself, but the change in free energy, Δ G . It can be shown that, at constant temperature and pressure: (Eq 4.6) Δ G = Δ H − T Δ S A...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...; 0 Fig. 2.12 Gibbs free-energy curves during solidification. Source: Ref 2.2 Immediately below T m , the free-energy change is very small, so solidification occurs slowly, but at larger undercooling or supercooling ( T m – T ), the free-energy change becomes greater and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... that promote such transformations and, in turn, how they affect the structure of various phases and the rate at which they form. The chapter also discusses the concepts of transformation kinetics, minimum free energy, and nucleation and growth, and provides information on alloying, interphase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... equilibrium phase diagrams, the role of enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy in chemical reactions, and a method for determining phase compositions along the solidus and liquidus lines. atomic diffusion body-centered cubic systems crystal defects equilibrium phase diagram face-centered cubic systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... (193) 43 (296) 24 43 1.8 0.7 77 (529) 0.22 0.013 Interstitial free steel 30 (207) 24 (165) 46 (317) 25 45 1.9 0.5 82 (564) 0.23 0.015 Rimmed steel 30 (207) 31 (214) 44 (303) 22 42 1.1 0.4 ... 0.2 0.012 High-strength low-alloy steel 30 (207) 50 (345) 65 (448) 20...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., free-machining carbon steels, low-alloy manganese steels, low-alloy molybdenum steels, low-alloy chromium-molybdenum steels, low-alloy nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels, low-alloy nickel-molybdenum steels, low-alloy chromium steels, and low-alloy silicon-manganese steels. The chapter provides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... free-energy curves. After intersection, such boundaries can also be extrapolated into metastable regions of the phase diagram. Such extrapolations are sometimes indicated by dashed or dotted lines. Two single-phase fields (α and β) should not be in contact along a horizontal line. (An invariant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... transfer between the hotter formed part and the cooler dies is most significant under pressure. Extensive studies conducted on workpiece and die temperatures in hot forming clearly showed that the heat transfer coefficient is much larger under forming pressure than under free contact conditions. With...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of the electrochemical free energy (G el = G + mFϕ as discussed in Chapter 2 ) also are represented in Fig. 3.6 . The shape of the electrical-component curve is defined by α′, the fractional change in the potential as a function of position; α, the transfer coefficient, is the fractional change at...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of bainitic ferrite reject carbon into the surrounding austenite by diffusion, leaving upper-bainitic ferrite free of internal carbides. Thus, the increased carbon content of the austenite creates a driving force for cementite precipitation in the interlath regions of the microstructure. At low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... roofing, and architectural framing to vacuum-degassed interstitial-free steels used in applications demanding the highest available formability. Common steel coatings include zinc, aluminum, tin, lead, nickel, and various alloys of these metals, as well as a range of organic coatings. Coatings such as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... microvoid formation caused by transgranular slip Stress rupture (sometimes referred to as decohesive rupture), when a pair of free surfaces are created from a preexisting grain boundary or second-phase boundary Ductile and brittle cracking are the two main types of overload fracture, while stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... wound Path generation: Creating feasible paths on the defined surface of the mandrel. The paths must be stable trajectories that do not exhibit slippage or significant fiber bridging. 3-D machine path generation: Generation of a path in free space around the mandrel so that the machine payout...