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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter, a detailed account of furnaces and related equipment for heat treating, begins by describing three basic modes of heat transmission, namely conduction, convection, and radiation, followed by a discussion on the working principle, applications, advantages, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses material-related problems associated with coal-fired burners. It explains how high temperatures affect heat-absorbing surfaces in furnace combustion areas and in the convection pass of superheaters and reheaters. It describes how low-NOx combustion technology...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... applications requiring corrosion/oxidation protection, erosion/wear protection, additive manufacturing, and fabricating free forms. This chapter discusses the function, advantages, and benefits of some of these applications. cold spray coating corrosion protection wear protection additive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Institute , April 1966 36. Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook , Hanford Engineering Laboratory , Richland, WA , 1976 37. Borgstedt H.U. , Frees G. , and Jesper H. , Werkst. Korros. , Vol 40 , 1989 , p 525 10.1002/maco.19890400902 38. Daniels E.J. , J...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Diffusion and electron transport through Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 are very slow because they are very free of defects. Hence, they are very protective. For an oxide to be protective, it must cover the surface. Hence, volume of oxide ≥ volume of metal oxidized. If nM + mO → ρM n O m , protection occurs if...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... 1018 760–790 1400–1450 1019 760–790 1400–1450 1020 760–790 1400–1450 1021 760–790 1400–1450 1022 760–790 1400–1450 1023 760–790 1400–1450 Free-cutting carbon steels 1108 760–790 1400–1450 1109 760–790 1400–1450 1115 760–790 1400–1450 1117 760–790 1400...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... residual liquid, or (b) break of columnar crystals or dendrites by convection flow in the melt ( Ref 1 , 27 , 28 , 30 ). According to the free chill crystal theory of Chalmers, the small equiaxed crystals initially adjacent to the mold wall are transported to the bulk liquid. For this purpose, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... steel can be transferred into other ladles, furnaces, or vessels for treatment. With ladle treatments, steels with sulfur as low as 0.002 wt% can be produced that are essentially free of oxide or sulfide inclusions. Metal loss can occur due to dross formation. Dross is the oxide-rich surface that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... been shown that nucleation of pores is difficult in the absence of some sort of substrate, such as a nonmetallic inclusion, a grain refiner, or a second-phase particle. Investigations have shown that castings free of inclusions have less porosity than castings that contain inclusions. As a metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... physical and chemically homogeneous, with a fine, equiaxial structure and free of segregation, porosity, pipe, and nonmetallic inclusions. However, the laws governing the solidification process prevent obtaining such homogeneous material. Furthermore, solidification shrinkage is an important source of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... for example in boron containing steels, or to restrain austenite grain growth. Kiessling notes that the transition metals Ti, Zr, and Hf, are comparatively strong sulfide formers and that the free energy of formation of titanium sulfide is of the same order as that of MnS ( Ref 9.4 ). Thus titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of the most continuous phase, one may expect a deterioration of toughness with these microstructural changes. This seems to be true when the steels are relatively free of phosphorus and nitrogen, because the fracture paths follow the sheets of cementite. Furthermore, embrittlement is affected by the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... fraction solid the instant the die cavity fills. The smaller the fraction solid, the better the surface finish. The higher the fraction solid, the less the potential for porosity. The surface finish is influenced by the part function and aesthetic appeal. The need for shrink-free walls is impacted by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... • Sastry A.M. , Impregnation and Consolidation Phenomena , Comprehensive Composite Materials , Vol 2 , Polymer Matrix Composites , Elsevier Science Ltd. , 2000 10.1016/B0-08-042993-9/00176-5 • Thorfinnson B. and Bierrinann T.F. , Production of Void Free Composite Parts without...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Distribution of BeO Particles in Be Casting Produced in Rocket Free Fall , Nature , Vol 274 , p 235 – 237 10.1038/274235b0 Selected References • Meyer G.E. , 1965 . “ Casting and Hot Working of Sound Large Diameter Beryllium Ingots ,” United States Air Force Contract AF33(657)-10943...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... process) Furan hot box Phenolic hot box Warm box (furfuryl/catalyst) Oven bake (core oil) Cold box resin binder procedures Phenolic urethane Furan/SO 2 Free radical cure (acrylic/epoxy) Phenolic ester No-bake resin binder processes Furan (acid catalyzed) Oil urethane Phenolic urethane Polyol urethane...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... The following conclusions were drawn from these experiments conducted in references [ Semiatin et al., 1987 ] and [ Burte et al., 1989 ]: The interface heat transfer coefficient increases with forging pressures. When the workpiece is free resting on a die, the heat transfer coefficient is an...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... needs to be clean and free of contamination. Silver solder flux is used to prevent oxidation during the soldering process. Adjoining parts should be brought to soldering temperature at the same time, and excessive silver solder should not be used. If the inside-diameter (ID) cooling passages are small...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... has been cold strained during processing. When cold worked metals are heated to a sufficiently high temperature, the badly deformed cold worked grains are replaced by new strain-free grains. This process is referred to as recrystallization, which is distinct from the recovery process during stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... course of the approach to the thermodynamic equilibrium state. This is best understood qualitatively from the concept of free volume ( Ref 19 ). The nonequilibrium state is associated with free volume, which is accessible for molecular rearrangements. The approach to equilibrium is accompanied by a...