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fracture plane

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This appendix contains figures that illustrate specimen orientation and crack plane codes for rolled plate, drawn bars, and hollow cylinders. drawn bars fracture plane hollow cylinders rolled plate specimen orientation Fig. A6.1 Conventional specimen orientation code...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... rate, the use of fracture indices and failure criteria, and the ramifications of crack-tip plasticity in ductile and brittle fractures. It goes on to describe the different types of plain-strain and plane-stress fracture toughness, explaining how they are measured and how they are influenced by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Abstract Fracture mechanics is a well-developed quantitative approach to the study of failures. This chapter discusses fracture toughness and fracture mechanics, linear-elastic fracture mechanics, and modes of loading. The discussion also covers plane strain and stress and crack growth kinetics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... failure transitions to a brittle failure. The discussion then covers the Griffith theory of brittle fracture and the formulation of fracture mechanics. Procedures for determination of the plane-strain fracture toughness are subsequently covered. Finally, the chapter describes the effects of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... unit cell of a body-centered cubic structure, shaded to show (a) the diagonal plane along which shear deformation and eventual fracture can occur and (b) one face of the cell, the site of the cleavage mode of fracture References 1. Bridgman P.W. , Fracture and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... components—tension, compression, and shear—are identical in pure torsion, unlike other types of loading. Figures 5 , 6 , and 7 show examples of torsional fractures. Fig. 5 Single-overload torsional fracture on the transverse shear plane of a shaft of medium-carbon steel of moderate hardness. Note...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Concentration by Cracks and Notches , J. Appl. Mech. (Trans. ASME) E , Vol 35 , 1968 , p 379 – 386 10.1115/1.3601206 6.6. Ratwani M.M. and Wilhem D.P. , “ Development and Evaluation of Methods of Plane Stress Fracture Analysis, Part II, Vol I, A Technique for Predicting Residual Strength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... residual stresses. A fracture is macroscopically brittle at the macroscale if it is on a plane normal to the maximum normal stress (condition 4 in Fig. 38 ). A fracture is considered to be macroscopically ductile when the fracture surfaces are inclined to an imposed load (slant fracture or plane...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.9781627083096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... methods and specimen configurations that have been developed to measure the toughness of various materials. In this chapter, five of the more common methods are covered: impact ductile-to-brittle transition temperature testing, drop-weight testing, plane-strain fracture toughness, J -integral, and crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.... , J. Polym. Sci. B. Polym. Phys. , Vol 29 , 1991 , p 785 10.1002/polb.1991.090290702 23. Ouederni M. and Phillips P.J. , J. Polym. Sci. B., Polym. Phys. , Vol 33 , 1995 , p 1313 10.1002/polb.1995.090330901 24. “ Standard Test Methods for Plane Strain Fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... octahedral stresses, which is based on the stresses acting on the octahedral plane ( Fig. 2.12 ). The octahedral shearing stress whose normal makes equal angles with σ 1 , σ 2 , and σ 3 is given by: (Eq 2.26a) τ oct = 1 3    ⋅ ( σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... evolution ahead of the crack tip accounts for the discrepancies in fracture toughness of polymers ( Ref 16 ). These results suggest that examination of the material above and below the crack-propagation plane should be considered in failure analysis in addition to the commonly accepted fracture surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials, ” E 399, Annual Book of ASTM Standards , American Society for Testing and Materials 42. Williams J.G. , Fracture Mechanics of Polymers , John Wiley & Sons , 1984 43. “ Standard Test Method for Stress Crazing of Acrylic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... fatigue cracks on opposite diagonals. The original shear crack was in the longitudinal shear plane; then each pair of torsional fatigue cracks developed at a 45° angle to the shaft axis. Fig. 36 Characteristic X-shaped crack pattern in a grade 1045 steel crankshaft after testing in reversed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... vs. yield strength. (b) Unit propagation energy vs. yield strength. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 26 Relationships of plane-strain fracture toughness to yield strength for the 2 xxx and 7 xxx series of aluminum alloys. Source: Ref 12 The strength-fracture toughness interaction has been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... where cleavage fracture has occurred. Cleavage in bcc ferrite occurs on {100} planes that have large interplanar spacings relative to the bcc slip planes. The bright lines on the cleavage surfaces are steps between fracture on two parallel but separated cleavage planes. Often, two small steps join...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... properties of composites and metals are given in Table 1 . Because composites are highly anistropic, the in-plane strength and stiffness are usually high and directionally variable, depending on the orientation of the reinforcing fibers. Properties that do not benefit from this reinforcement, at least for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... that there has been extensive stretching, or elongation, of the grains of metal in the reduced area, particularly near the fracture. As noted above, shear stress dominates deformation and ductile fracture. In most cases, the 45° plane of maximum shear stress components is not obvious or readily...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., sheet, or flat bar. Note the classic chevron or herringbone marks that point toward the origin of the fracture, where there usually is some type of stress concentration, such as a welding defect, fatigue crack, or stress-corrosion crack. The plane of the fracture is always perpendicular to the principal...