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fractional crystallization

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of microstructure. It explains how microstructure can be represented qualitatively by points, lines, surfaces, and volumes associated to a large extent with grain contact, and how qualitative features (including grains) can be quantified based on cross-sectional area, volume fraction, density, distribution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... in the study of crystalline structures. crystalline planes crystalline directions crystalline structures X-ray techniques Miller indices cubic crystal systems hexagonal crystal systems References 1. Reed-Hill R.E. and Abbaschian R. , Physical Metallurgy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...′ lattice mismatch, γ′ volume fraction, diffusion rates, antiphase-boundary energy, and stacking fault energy. Surface stability improvement is achieved through the formation of a protective surface oxide scale composed largely of chromium and/or aluminum oxides. Reactive elements yttrium, cerium, hafnium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... diagram can be used to determine three important types of information: the phases that are present, the composition of the phases, and the percentages or fractions of the phases. The chapter then describes the construction of one common type of binary phase diagram i.e., the eutectic alloy system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.9781627082969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...) a ), although occasionally it may nucleate elsewhere, such as at a nonmetallic inclusion—and each nucleus grows as a colony until it impinges on an adjoining colony ( Fig. 9.1 (Part 1) a to d ). These colonies are units of interpenetrating single crystals of ferrite and cementite, as was discussed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... probably does not exist. (b) and (c) Typical eutectic diagrams for (b) components having the same crystal structure and (c) components having different crystal structures; the eutectic (invariant) points are labeled E . The dashed lines in (b) and (c) are metastable extensions of the stable-equilibria...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Morphology in a Single Crystal Ni-Base Superalloy , Scr. Mater. , Vol 58 , 2008 , p 146 – 149 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2007.09.050 While there are several environmental-attack mechanisms that affect superalloys, such as erosion, aqueous corrosion, fretting, carburization, sulfidation, and so...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... superalloy phases is presented in Table 4.1 . As may be seen from the table, some phases in superalloys are beneficial and others degrade alloy properties ( Ref 1 ). Table 4.1 Phases observed in superalloys Phase Crystal structure Lattice parameter, nm Formula Comments γ Face-centered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... V volume ν R growth rate of solid phase (crystal), Δ x /Δ t V v volume fraction of phase ν T cooling rate, Δ T /Δ t θ wetting angle ξ crystallographic factor Δ C difference in concentration Δ G driving force of transformation, Gibbs free energy Δ G N...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... with respect to the bottom half. Because only a small fraction of the bonds are broken at any given time, a much smaller force is required to cause slip in metal crystals. Atoms around a dislocation are displaced from their lattice positions and this leads to lattice distortion and associated high-strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the polished surface, and the rate of removal depends on both the crystal orientation of the grain and the type of grain, for example, ferrite versus austenite. The gray level observed in the microscope for a given grain depends on the degree of smoothness of the grain surface after the etching. As shown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., and pearlite from austenite are essentially diffusional. These processes are extremely important for two reasons: They define morphology (shape), size, and volumetric fraction of these phases when they form. Thus, they largely define the physical and mechanical properties resulting from heat treatments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... temperature → soaked in liquid N for 1 h → brought to room temperature Source: Ref 9.3 Vickers microhardness tests of samples obtained from the six heat treatments showed that the hardness values were similar. This implies that the phase fractions of retained austenite and ε-martensite in those...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Fig. 4.10 Coring due to nonequilibrium solidification. Source: Ref 4.5 as published in Ref 4.3 Some systems are comprised of components having the same crystal structure, and the components of some of these systems are completely miscible (completely soluble in each other) in the solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... commercially in a highly purified state by fractional crystallization from a beryllium sulfate solution obtained by reacting beryllium hydroxide with sulfuric acid. The salt is used primarily in the production of beryllium oxide powder for ceramics. By heating BeSO 4 · 4H 2 O at 92 °C (200 °F), beryllium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... spectroscopy. It explains how the tools work and what they reveal. It also covers the topic of image analysis and its application in the measurement of grain size, phase/volume fraction, delta ferrite and retained austenite, inclusion rating, depth of carburization/decarburization, scale thickness, pearlite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the transformations, grain structure, and properties associated with each phase and identifies the primary stabilizing elements. It includes several micrographs revealing various microstructural features and describes the processing route by which they were achieved. It explains how to estimate the volume fraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This appendix provides a detailed overview of the crystal structure of metals. It describes primary bonding mechanisms, space lattices and crystal systems, unit cell parameters, slip systems, and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
..., 713, 738, and 792, B-1900, and MAR-M 200 ( Ref 11 ) and single-crystal cast alloys PWA1483, PWA1484, CMSX-4, and Rene N6. The superior high-temperature capability of nickel-base superalloys is due to the precipitation of high volume fractions of the γ′-Ni 3 (Al,Ti) phase, which requires combined...