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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... programming of the pure CNC code can be quite complicated. To apply the operator’s individual knowledge to the spinning process, many spinning machines are equipped with a teach-in panel ( Fig. 12.13 ). By using a joystick to move the forming tool, an individual tool path can be recorded and transferred to a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... sheet metal forming operation such as heat transfer or friction coefficients are difficult to define quantitatively. For a given material and shape, the surface transformations occurring in the plastic deformation zone are controlled by the equipment, tooling, and work piece/tool interface. The metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... incremental sheet forming. Setup (left) and first results (right). Source: Ref 13.20 Abstract This chapter describes incremental sheet forming processes, including single-point, two-point, and kinematic (two tool) techniques. It provides information on the tooling and equipment used, work flow and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... milliseconds is considered a high-velocity or impulse forming process. This chapter discusses the operating principles, equipment, and applications of the most common high-rate forming processes, including high-velocity hydroforming, high-velocity mechanical forming, and electromagnetic or energy-based forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... convergent photoelectric sensors Fig. 15.14 Example application of a photosensor for monitoring part ejection. Source: Ref 15.16 Abstract This chapter discusses the types of sensors used in sheet forming operations and the information they provide. It explains how force sensors protect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
..., stresses and heat transfer as well as (b) technological information related to lubrication, heating and cooling techniques, material handling, die design and manufacture, and forming equipment. Metal forming processes can be classified as: Bulk deformation processes, such as forging, extrusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
..., dimensional accuracy, and stiffness as well as die change procedures. forming presses sheet metal forming EACH SHEET FORMING PROCESS is associated, in a practical sense, with at least one type of sheet forming machine or equipment. The sheet forming equipment varies by the rate at which energy is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... achieved. Such a system is necessary in roll forming of high- and ultrahigh-strength materials, where a significant deviation in mechanical properties may be possible within a coil. In addition to the equipment discussed previously, other types of peripheral units can be integrated into the roll...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... forming temperature, the interface condition (lubricant/friction and heat transfer), the tool temperature, the forming speed (or strain rate), and the forming equipment strongly influence the final product shape and properties as well as the economics of the process. A fundamental understanding of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... reduce the force required to form the joint because the material must overcome the restraining force applied by the elastomeric ring to flow outward. Eckold GmbH, based in St. Andreasburg, Germany, also produces clinching equipment. Their process is similar to that of TOX Pressotechnik GmbH and BTM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.9781627083164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... coatings. Application methods vary widely and include dipping in a molten bath (zinc, aluminum, tin, and terne—a lead-tin alloy), electroplating (zinc and tin), and spraying or roll coating (paints or organics). Coated flat rolled steels are formed using the same general equipment, tooling, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the various types of cushion systems used in forming presses and their effect on part quality. It begins with a review of the deep drawing process, explaining that wrinkling, tearing, and fracture are the result of excess or insufficient material flow, which can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... key process parameters including the draw ratio, material properties, geometry, interface conditions, equipment operating speed, and tooling. It then walks through the steps involved in predicting stress, strain, and punch force using the slab method and finite element analysis and presents the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
...-series by extrusion ( Ref 9.9 ). The main functions of hydroforming equipment are to close the die set, provide clamping load during forming, pump high fluid pressure into the tube, and transmit the axial force to the tube ends to feed the material. Tube hydroforming equipment comprises a press...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the factors that influence the load-deformation relationship at the heart of most metal forming operations. It describes the changes that occur in tensile test samples and the various ways test data can be plotted and analyzed, particularly for design purposes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... between 1 and 3 min, depending on press size, formed parts, and selected pressure. Maximum forming pressures are 100 MPa (14.5 ksi) and 140 MPa (20 ksi). For increased productivity, the fluid cell presses can be equipped with pallet systems. Using such a system, the tools and blanks are loaded onto a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Table 3.1 Commercial software used for sheet metal forming simulations Software Origin and company Code type ABAQUS-Standard HKS, USA Static implicit MARC MSC, USA NIKE3D LSTC, USA AUTOFORM-Explicit Autoform, Switzerland Static implicit (special) DYNA3D LSTC, USA...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... using new technology, such as a servo press, is how to effectively use the equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a methodology to determine the optimized press parameters to form a given part with high quality. The biggest advantage the servo press has over mechanical presses is the ability...
Book Chapter

By Eren Billur
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... overcome the cushion force and additional energy to form the part ( E slide = E cushion + E forming ). Thus, the overall energy would be an addition of both. To make a deep drawing press more efficient, it can be equipped with eco-cushions ( Fig. 12.20 ). In this cushion system, cushion cylinders...