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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract In forgings of both ferrous and nonferrous metals, the flaws that most often occur are caused by conditions that exist in the ingot, by subsequent hot working of the ingot or the billet, and by hot or cold working during forging. The inspection methods most commonly used to detect...
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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 8.3 Hand forgings and sections of ring-rolled forgings at the Weber Metals plant in Torrance, California. Source: Ref 8.4 More
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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 8.5 Ring forgings used to construct rockets. Source: Ref 8.5 . Courtesy of Scot Forge More
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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 8.6 Hollow cores forgings (a) as-forged and (b) after machining and assembly of 6061-T6 electrical power grid test load cells. Courtesy of Scot Forge More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 6.11 Comparison of typical design limits for rib-web structural forgings of (a) aluminum alloys and (b) nickel-base alloys. Dimensions given in millimeters. More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 6.2 Open-die “pancake” forgings of Waspaloy nickel-base superalloy More
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Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 14.4 Comparison of typical design limits for rib-web-type structural forgings of (a) aluminum alloys and (b) nickel-base superalloys (all dimensions are in mm) [ Sabroff et al., 1968 ] More
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Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 14.20 Preforms for different H-shaped forgings [ Lange et al., 1977 ] More
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Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 6 Typical discontinuities found in aluminum alloy forgings. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 October 2012
Fig. 1.11 Alloy Ti-6Al-4V forgings for upper and lower bulkheads used on the F-15 that were produced on a 450 MN (50,000 tonf) hydraulic press using conventional forging methods. Source: Ref 1.5 More
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Published: 01 October 2012
Fig. 2.10 Types of aluminum closed-die forgings and tolerances for each. (a) Blocker type. (b) Conventional. (c) High definition. (d) Precision. Source: Ref 2.12 Characteristic Tolerance, mm (in.) Blocker-type Conventional High-definition Precision Die closure +2.3, –1.5 More
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Published: 01 October 2012
Fig. 2.11 Examples of very large blocker-type aluminum alloy airframe forgings. Source: Ref 2.13 More
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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 11 Comparison of properties of steel rotor forgings made from ESR and conventionally melted ingots. (a) Impact strength of grade X22CrMoV121. (b) Fracture toughness of grade 30CrMoNiV511. Specimen orientation and location are indicated next to curves. Source: Ref 9 to 11 More
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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 25 Cross sections of (a) precision and (b) conventional forgings. Source: Ref 10 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Abstract Forging is a deformation process achieved through the application of compressive stresses. During the stroke, pressures and velocities are continuously changing and the initial lubricant supply must suffice for the duration of the operation. Lubricant residues and pickup products also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... Abstract Forged aluminum products vary widely in their production methods and applications. The forging process allows for control of microstructure and directional properties, and their fatigue and fracture resistance are superior to shape castings. This chapter presents the types, equipment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the similarities and differences of forging and forming processes used in the production of wrought superalloy parts. Although forming is rarely concerned with microstructure, forging processes are often designed with microstructure in mind. Besides shaping...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract This chapter provides practical information on the forming and forging processes used to manufacture titanium parts, including die forging, precision die forging, hot and cold forming, superplastic forming, and deep drawing. It explains how process variables such as temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This article presents six case studies of failures with steel forgings. The case studies covered are crankshaft underfill; tube bending; spade bit; trim tear; upset forging; and avoidance of flow through, lap, and crack. The case studies illustrate difficulties encountered in either...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract Forging machines vary based on factors such as the rate at which energy is applied to the workpiece and the means by which it is controlled. Each type has distinct advantages and disadvantages, depending on lot size, workpiece complexity, dimensional tolerances, and the alloy being...