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forging parameters

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... the requirements of various forging alloys, the influence of machine operating parameters, and production challenges related to lot tolerances and shape complexity. The chapter also covers the design of finisher dies, the prediction of forging stresses and loads, and the design of preform dies for steel, aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., explaining how to estimate friction and flow stress and predict extrusion loads and energy requirements. The chapter also discusses the tooling used in cold forging, the parameters affecting tool life, and the relative advantages of warm forging. cold forging extrusion flow stress friction tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effect of friction and lubrication on forgings and forging operations. The discussion covers lubrication mechanisms, the use of friction laws, tooling and process parameters, and the lubrication requirements of specific materials and forging processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., and the influence of equipment-related parameters such as press speed, contact time, and tooling geometries. forging heat transfer temperature References [Altan et al., 1970] Altan T. , Gerds A.F. , “ Temperature Effects in Closed-Die Forging ,” ASM Technical Report...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of finite-element modeling in forging design. It describes key modeling parameters and inputs, mesh generation and computation time, and process modeling outputs such as metal flow, strain rate, loading profiles, and microstructure. It also includes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of finite-element methods for modeling cold forging processes. The discussion covers process modeling inputs, such as geometric parameters, material properties, and interface conditions, and includes several application examples. cold forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Temperature is a critical process parameter in the heat treatment and forging of steel and must be accurately measured to properly control it. This appendix discusses the operating principles of thermocouples and infrared pyrometers, describing the various types as well as advantages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... speed, flash dimensions, forging geometry, and billet and die temperatures. This method may help the designer to understand the effects of several forging parameters, such as flash dimensions, forging temperature, and friction (lubrication) on the forging load. For example, if the effect of flash...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... but less so than refractory metals and superalloys. The working history and forging parameters used in titanium alloy forging have a great impact on the microstructure and properties of the finished component. Consequently, forging sequences and subsequent heat treatment can be used to control...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... , 1991 . [Dahl et al., 1998] Dahl C. , Vazquez V. , Altan T. , “ Effect of Process Parameters on Die Life and Die Failure in Precision Forging, ” Report No. PF/ERC/NSM-98-R-15, Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing , April 1998 . [Dahl et al., 1999] Dahl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... from the deformation temperature is thus a critical parameter in determining the extent of meta-dynamic recrystallization that will occur. Static recrystallization occurs in the absence of deformation. Thus, it is primarily a factor in grain growth during pre-heating of the forging increments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... ]. These methods were good, but quantitative extraction of various processing parameters on the resulting microstructures and properties was not effectively accomplished. The application of finite-element modeling (FEM) to forging made it possible to obtain the detailed thermomechanical histories at each...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... for the accurate determination of the input data for FEM simulation is introduced to determine material parameters in the flow stress model and the friction at the tool/workpiece interface. In a large plastic deformation problem, usually encountered in most forging applications, the deformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... be used for billets encased in steel jackets, with thicknesses depending on the forging parameters. When encased, billets are forged at temperatures between 760 and 1065 °C (1400 and 1950 °F). Forging can be more readily accomplished by maintaining the part in a compressive mode. The necessary restraint...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract Separation of billets by shearing avoids material loss and is considerably faster than sawing or cutting. This chapter discusses the billet shearing process, the characteristics of sheared surfaces, and the effect of various operating parameters on surface quality. It also includes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract There are numerous approximate methods, both analytical and numerical, for analyzing forging processes. None are perfect because of the assumptions made to simplify the mathematical approach, but all have merit. This chapter discusses the slab, upperbound, and finite element methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... gear, are ready for assembly [ Meidert et al., 2000 ]. Fig. 23.1 Examples of net shape forged parts [ Meidert et al., 2000 ] Some of the parameters affecting the quality of near-net shape forged components are illustrated in Fig. 23.2 . Fig. 23.2 Factors influencing the quality...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... ) Interdependence of forging process parameters ( Fig. 2 ) Forging process design task overview ( Fig. 3 ) Relationship between process and machine variables ( Fig. 4 ) Characteristics of forging machines ( Table 4 ) Workability modeling (process maps showing zones of stable flow) of workpiece behavior...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Freckles in IN-718 nickel-base superalloy billet forged from vacuum arc remelted ingot in which control of melt conditions was lost. Note: Composition of freckle vs. matrix was by microprobe and does not show carbon, which would be elevated in the freckles. Compositions of a freckle and surrounding...