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forging laps

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Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.58 Forging laps detected by surface crack examinations. Extensive decarburization of the lap region can be noticed when observing the reduction of the pearlite volume fraction. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of M.M. Souza, Neumayer-Tekfor, Jundiaí, SP, Brazil. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 1-11 Macroetching of a Ti-6Al-4V forging revealed grain flow and a forging lap (1¼×; etchant, solution of 10 mL HF, 15 mL HNO 3 , and 75 mL H 2 O for 2 min at room temperature). (Courtesy of J. A. Hendrickson, Wyman-Gordon Co.) More
Image
Published: 01 June 1985
Fig. 5-7. Forging lap around a forged hub. Crack followed the normal flow-line pattern and retained oxidized scale along its surface. More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.56 Forging lap in a bar of ASTM A564 UNS 17400 (17-4PH) stainless steel. Transverse cross section. (There is an etching stain close to the lap caused by liquid retained inside the lap during the preparation process). Etchant: 2000 ml H 2 O + 300 ml H 2 O 2 + 350 ml HCl + 50 ml HNO 3 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.57 Forging lap. (a) Macrograph. (b) Ferrite, pearlite. Decarburization and oxides inside the discontinuity. Etchant: nital 2%. (c) Extensive decarburization and presence of oxides in the discontinuity. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of M.M. Souza, Neumayer-Tekfor, Jundiaí, SP, Brazil. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 3-46 Oxygen enrichment at a forging lap revealed using Fine’s alkaline chromate etch (16 g CrO 3 , 80 g NaOH, and 145 mL water), 37×. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... It describes special cases of segregation, including banding and why it occurs, and the application of closed die forging. The chapter also presents several examples of hot working defects, including forging laps, cracks, and overheated or burned steel. closed die forging hot working inclusions open...
Image
Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 9 Typical forging defects. (a) Seam in rolled 4130 steel bar. Note the linear characteristics of this flaw. (b) Micrograph of seam in (a) showing cross section of the bar. Seam is normal to the surface and filled with oxide. Original magnification: 30×. (c) Micrograph of forging lap. Note More
Image
Published: 01 November 2012
of a forging lap. Note the included oxide material in the lap. Original magnification: 20×. (d) Cross section of a forged bar showing a forging burst. The burst is located approximately at the centerline of the workpiece. Arrow indicates the direction of working. Source: Ref 2 More
Image
Published: 01 June 1985
Fig. 3-15. Steel-forged gear carriers, 3/4×. Macroetched on the machined surfaces to show the extent of forging laps. More
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 1 A large roll was found to have cracks on the outer and inner surfaces of the forging. These cracks were found during final inspection. During examination of metallographic sections taken from the roll, high-temperature oxides were found on the crack faces, strongly suggesting forging More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... These flaws are often caused by the movement of metal over or upon another surface without actual welding or fusing of the surfaces; such flaws may be laps or folds. Cold shuts often occur in closed-die forgings. They are junctures of two adjoining surfaces caused by incomplete metal fill and incomplete...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This article presents six case studies of failures with steel forgings. The case studies covered are crankshaft underfill; tube bending; spade bit; trim tear; upset forging; and avoidance of flow through, lap, and crack. The case studies illustrate difficulties encountered in either...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1985
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sagf.t63420129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-452-9
... ) nonuniform gear tooth characteristics may occur during subsequent heat treatment. Forging Laps Forging laps are formed at or near the surface of a forged part when an overlapping piece of material is pressed back into the part, yet is separated by an oxidized film or scale ( Fig. 3-15 ). At times...
Image
Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 6.12 Typical deformation sequence in closed-die forging of a rib-web part, showing how laps can be generated if preform geometry is selected improperly More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... The advantage of computer simulation of forging is that the entire forging process is stored in a database file in the computer and can be tracked. Whether there is a defect formed and how it is formed can be previewed before the actual forging. Figure 16.2 shows the lap formation for a rejected process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... to the surface and filled with oxide. Original magnification: 30×. (c) Micrograph of a forging lap. Note the included oxide material in the lap. Original magnification: 20×. (d) Cross section of a forged bar showing a forging burst. The burst is located approximately at the centerline of the workpiece. Arrow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... design features. For example, close-die forging imposes more lateral constraint on metal flow than open-die forging. This may lead to flow-related defects such as forging laps or seams. Forging processes Table 6.2 Forging processes Forging Open-die forging Open dies are primarily used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... Abstract Gear manufacture depends on machinery available, design specifications or requirements, cost of production, and type of material from which the gear is to be made. This chapter discusses the processes involved in methods for manufacturing gears, namely casting, forming, and forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... Source: Ref 2 Depth of Decarburization Produced by Induction For a typical 5 s heat cycle to 950 °C (1760 °F), the decarb depth is calculated to be 0.00197 cm (0.00078 in.). This depth is so shallow that decarburization with induction heat treating has never been a problem. Castings, forgings...