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forging imperfections

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities. It shows how application life is affected by the severity of service conditions and discusses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... ingots. Most closed-die forgings and upset forgings are produced from billets, rolled bar stock, or preforms. Many, though by no means all, of the imperfections found in forgings can be attributed to conditions that existed in the ingot, sometimes even when the ingot has undergone primary reduction prior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... an ingot, which may be remelted several times to achieve the necessary properties. It also discusses the cause of defects and ingot imperfections and the benefits of billet reduction and grain-refinement processes. billets ingots mill products titanium alloys titanium sponge vacuum arc remelting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... on melting, forging, casting, heat treating, and secondary fabrication. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of titanium and its alloys in various applications. melting primary fabrication forging casting heat treatment secondary fabrication titanium titanium alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...Typical decarburization limits for steel forgings Table 9.1 Typical decarburization limits for steel forgings Range of section size Typical depth of decarburization mm in. mm in. <25 <1 0.8 0.031 25 to 100 1 to 4 1.2 0.047 100 to 200 4 to 8 1.6 0.062...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Size of the Die Block Draft, or Taper Flash Allowance Locating Impressions Hot Working Cold Working Forging Hammers and Presses Die Design and Materials Die Steels Friction and Lubrication in Forging Forging Imperfections Forging Processes Open-Die Forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... as well as assembly errors, abnormal operating conditions, and inadequate maintenance. It also describes the precise usage of terms such as defect, flaw, imperfection, and discontinuity. failure analysis hip implants I beams manufacturing defects piston heads porcelain insulators quill shafts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
..., compositions, and grades of commercially pure titanium and alpha and near-alpha, alpha-beta, and beta titanium alloys. It describes primary and secondary fabrication processes, including melting, forging, forming, heat treating, casting, machining, and joining as well as powder metallurgy and direct metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... closely examine the surface disturbance. In some instances, acid etching (macroetching) can be used to reveal structures that would not be visible to the naked eye, as shown in the flow lines in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Flow lines in closed die forged UNS G41400 steering knuckle revealed by cold deep acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... – 276 5. Bohl R.W. , “ Difficulties and Imperfections Associated with Heat Treated Steel ,” MEI Course 10, Lesson 13, ASM International 6. Thelning K.E. , Steel and Its Heat Treatment , Butterworths , London, U.K. , 1985 7. Berns H. , Distortion and Crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Chang Albany Some specific examples of product forms are: Mill Products Ingot Billet Bar Sheet Strip Tube Plate Nonmill Products Sponge Powder Customized Product Forms Forgings P/M items Castings One of many different types...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.9781627082693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of die failures in hot and cold forging operations. It describes failure classifications, fatigue fracture and wear mechanisms, analytical wear models, and the various factors that limit die life. It also includes several case studies in which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... an AISI 4145 modified alloy steel billet revealed hydrogen flakes. Figure 1-11 Macroetching of a Ti-6Al-4V forging revealed grain flow and a forging lap (1¼×; etchant, solution of 10 mL HF, 15 mL HNO 3 , and 75 mL H 2 O for 2 min at room temperature). (Courtesy of J. A. Hendrickson, Wyman...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... compositions. The contents included a brief history, applications, chemical analysis, physical properties, and the resistance to 40 agencies of rust, stain, and corrosion. Detailed information was given on forging temperatures and properties after various heat treatments. The properties included tensile...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... contribution. Courtesy of C.E. Price, Oklahoma State University. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 47 Stress-corrosion fracture that occurred by decohesion along the parting plane of an aluminum alloy forging. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 2 Type 302 stainless steel tensile specimen with the typical cup...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... with a 0.5 μm (20 μin.) finish, local imperfections can increase the average to 1.5 μm (60 μin.) or greater. Therefore, it would be difficult to maintain a good surface finish on gear teeth without grinding. Typical Gear Forgings The 4.5 kg (10 lb) gear shown in Fig. 8 was forged from 8620 steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Liquid Penetrant Inspection Radiographic Inspection Steels melted by various processes can be successfully converted into seamless tubes. In general, killed steels made by open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen processes are used. Because of the severity of the forging operation involved...