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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... rates. It describes special cases of segregation, including banding and why it occurs, and the application of closed die forging. The chapter also presents several examples of hot working defects, including forging laps, cracks, and overheated or burned steel. closed die forging hot working...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract Most integrated titanium mills have primary working equipment designed specifically for titanium. This chapter describes the forging, rolling, and extruding equipment used to produce titanium mill products and sheds light on the corresponding process, structure, property relationships...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the equipment and processes used to convert titanium billet and bar into useful shapes or more refined product forms. These secondary working operations include open-die, closed-die, hot-die and isothermal forging as well as ring rolling and extruding. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... somewhat by heating in the alpha-beta field, but the coarse prior-beta structure can only be altered by further mechanical working at temperatures below the beta transus. Fig. 7.31 (a) Acicular alpha (transformed beta) and prior-beta grain boundaries in bar forged 50% from 1065 °C (1950 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... selected because of its light weight, low elastic modulus, and strength. A shaft of this type produces a controlled torque that promotes longer, straighter golf shots. Titanium is used extensively in the hollow head of golf drivers ( Fig. 15.26 ) and in irons and putters (in all cases, both cast and forged...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... combination with densification operations such as HIP and forging (either conventional or isothermal) and innovative treatments such as the BUS treatment or THP. The qualification of Dynamet Technology BE powder metallurgy material by Boeing is a major step forward, as is the use of hydrogenated sponge by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... chapter as representative of the beta alloy class of alloys. Table 6.3 Typical elevated-temperature properties of some titanium alloys Temperature Ti-0.2O 2 (sheet) Ti-8Mn (sheet) Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (bar) Ti-6Al-4V (bar) Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (forged wheel) Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1 Mo-0.25Si (bar) Ti...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., which powers the Boeing 787 and 747-8 aircraft. The replacement of the nearly twice-as-dense nickel-base superalloy traditional compressor blades with TiAl resulted in greater thrust-to-weight ratios. Gamma TiAl can be isothermally forged using hot dies under a constant strain rate (<10 –2 /s) or at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... and use of titanium. Alloy processes and fabrication techniques matured with the development of another beta alloy (Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn) and a forgeable near-beta alloy (Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al). Isothermal forging, SPF castings, and extensive use of scrap were now accepted practices. The aerospace industry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... alloy assemblies ( Ref 12.1 – 12.13 ). Welded assemblies are fabricated from sheet, plate, bar, and forgings. With many processes, titanium welding operations are identical to those used to join other metals in similar applications. However, some welding processes require special techniques and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... extrusions, forgings, and sheet metal. Most titanium alloys are homogeneous and fine grained and can be chemically milled in the annealed and solution-treated and aged condition. Generally, the annealed condition is preferred due to the selective relaxation of surface stresses in the area being relieved...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.9781627083188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses bulk deformation processes and how they are used to reshape metals and refine solidification structures. It begins by describing the differences between hot and cold working along with their respective advantages. It then discusses various forging methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... , 2nd ed. , Metal Powder Industries Federation , 1995 • Kuhn H.A. and Ferguson B.L. , Powder Forging , Metal Powder Industries Federation , 1990 • Pease L.F. III and West W.G. , Fundamentals of Powder Metallurgy , Metal Powder Industries Federation , 2002...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... product shapes. After initial hot rolling operations, semifinished products are worked by hot rolling, cold rolling, forging, extruding, or drawing. Some steels are used in the hot rolled condition, while others are heat treated to obtain specific properties. However, the great majority of plain carbon...