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forced convection

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... of heating by convection. Tempering of steel is a common application of convection heating in heat treating. A typical installation is shown in Fig. 2 . This furnace is heated by recirculating, forced air convection. The electric heating elements are located apart from the work chamber. The air...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses material-related problems associated with coal-fired burners. It explains how high temperatures affect heat-absorbing surfaces in furnace combustion areas and in the convection pass of superheaters and reheaters. It describes how low-NOx combustion technology...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract Compared with other deformation processes used to produce semifinished products, the hot-working extrusion process has the advantage of applying pure compressive forces in all three force directions, enhancing workability. The available variations in the extrusion process enable a wide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... (forced circulation loop, FCL, and thermal convection loop, TCL) at different laboratories. The data, illustrated in Fig. 16.7 , are presented in terms of an Arrhenius plot of dissolution rates for ferritic steels (HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo) and austenitic stainless steels (Type 316, cold-worked Type 316, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... of steel in liquid media, the process may be split into the following three stages: (a) the vapor blanket stage, (b) the boiling stage, and (c) the convection stage. Figure 6.1 gives examples of the three stages of quenching. Fig. 6.1 Photo sequence of a hot steel rod being quenched in a 25...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
.... , and Han Q. , Effect of Power Ultrasound on Solidification of Aluminum A356 Alloy , Mater. Lett. , Vol 59 , 2005 , p 190 – 193 10.1016/j.matlet.2004.09.027 31. Banaszek J. , McFadden S. , Browne D.J. , Sturz L. , and Zimmerman G. , Natural Convection and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... toward a rosette or a spherical morphology ( Fig. 5.12 ). Forced convection currents or mechanical agitation increases shear and turbulence in the liquid, which promotes the solidification of the globular semisolid structure. However, recent research and development show that it is not necessary to use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Table 7.5 Powder production methods Step Inert gas atomization (a) Soluble gas process Rotating electrode process (b) Plasma rotating electrode process Centrifugal atomization with forced convective cooling (RSR) (c) Melting 1 VIM; ceramic crucible VIM; ceramic crucible VIM, VAR...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... cooling, as depicted schematically in Fig. 6.1 . As with thermoset composites, the main processing variables are time ( t ), temperature ( T ), and pressure ( P ). Heating can be accomplished with infrared heaters, convection ovens, heated platen presses, or autoclaves. Since time for chemical reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... shell type with a firetube design so as to achieve high heat transfer rates by both radiation and convection. They are installed with a large number of small-diameter tubes offering good convective heat transfer with a forced or induced draft system. The small size of the combustion chamber and high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... convective flow of heat. The furnaces are heated with gas or electricity. The heating rate of the blanks is controlled by the speed of rollers or walking beams in the furnace. For 22MnB5 steel with an aluminum-silicon coating, a heating rate of 12 K/s (22 °F/s) is recommended to avoid melting of the aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... Manufacturing of Pyramidal Pin Fins: Height and Fin Density Effects under Forced Convection , Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. , Vol 75 , 2014 , p 235 – 244 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.03.053 7.63 Froes F.S. , Titanium Powder Metallurgy: A Review, Part 2 , Adv. Mater. Process. , Vol 170...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... the bottom with remaining ash being carried by the combustion flue gas stream to the top of the furnace and through the convection pass. The ash carried by the flue gas stream is referred to as “fly-ash.” With pulverized coal firing, about 70 to 90% of the ash in the coal is carried by the flue gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... cleanliness, and mold and core hardness. However, poor casting design is the primary cause. Castings should be designed so that solidifying sections are not subjected to tensile forces caused by shrinkage during solidification, because the solidifying alloy has little strength before it solidifies. Molten...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ( San Antonio, TX ), U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory and the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Dec 2000 8. Lott S.E. and Alkire R.C. , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 136 , 1989 , p 973 10.1149/1.2096896 9. Brossia C.S. and Kelly R.G. , Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... surface as liquid quenchant contacts the metal surface and is vaporized. The liquid cooling stage begins when the temperature of the metal surface is reduced below the boiling point of the quenching liquid. Below this temperature, boiling stops, and cooling takes place by conduction and convection into...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Epoxy Resin Composites ,” Air Force Contract No. F33615-80-C-5021, Final Report for Aug 1980 to Dec 1983 7. Tsai S.W. , Composites Design—1986 , Think Composites , 1986 , p 15-1 – 15-21 8. Darrow D.A. and Smith L.V. , Evaluating the Spring-In Phenomena of Polymer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... approach was to produce a melt containing a uniform dispersion of BeO to aid nucleation during solidification and to achieve it without gravitational settling forces and gravity-induced convective currents. They reported that neither beryllium particles nor BeO produced a fine-grained cast structure. They...