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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the methodology of the tensile test and the effect of some of the variables on the tensile properties. The methodology and variables discussed are shape of the item being tested, method of gripping the item, method of applying the force, determination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides a detailed analysis of the deep drawing process. It begins by explaining that different areas of the workpiece are subjected to different types of forces and loads, equating to five deformation zones. After describing the various zones, it discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
..., which can be prevented by maintaining the correct amount of holding force on the periphery of the blank. It then describes how blank holding force is generated in double-action presses and the extent to which displacement profiles can be adjusted on both the inner and outer slides. The discussion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter reviews the current technology and examines force application systems, force measurement, strain measurement, important instrument considerations, gripping of test specimens, test diagnostics, and the use of computers for gathering and reducing data. The influence...
Book Chapter

By Soumya Subramonian
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the blanking process and the forces and stresses involved. It discusses the factors that affect part quality and tool life, including punch and die geometry, stagger, clearance, and wear as well as punch velocities, misalignment, and snap...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the characteristic damage of a mid-air explosion and how it appears in metal debris recovered from crash sites of downed aircraft. It explains that explosive forces produce telltale signs such as petaling, curling, spalling, spikes, reverse slant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... crystal silicon. The illumination from Laser 1 is perpendicular to that of Laser 2 and the two lasers are pulsed 180° apart [23] . Figure 31 AFM image of an array of nanoindentations in silicon (7.5 mN force, 2 μm × 1.3 μm pitch) [24] . Figure 32 DSPV image of nanoindentations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... the cost and complexity of machining titanium alloys. It explains how titanium compares to other metals in terms of cutting force and power requirements and how these forces, along with cutting speeds and the use of cutting fluids, affect tool life, surface finish, and part tolerances. The chapter also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
...Abstract Abstract Compared with other deformation processes used to produce semifinished products, the hot-working extrusion process has the advantage of applying pure compressive forces in all three force directions, enhancing workability. The available variations in the extrusion process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
...Abstract Abstract In dynamic hardness tests, the test force is applied to the defined indenter in an accelerated way (with a high application rate). Dynamic test methods relate hardness to the elastic response of a material, whereas the classical static indentation tests determine hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... counting method, mechanical modeling based on displacement-limited elements, Wetzel’s method, and deformation modeling. It also explains the difference between force cycling and stress cycling and presents alternate techniques for predicting whether a material will become harder or softer in response...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the concept of mean stress and explains how it is used in fatigue analysis and design. It begins by examining the stress-strain response of test samples subjected to cyclic forces and strains, noting important features and what they reveal about...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... on force, velocity, and stroke profiles. It begins by describing the simplest drive configuration, a crankshaft that connects directly to the slide, and a variation of it that uses eccentric gears to alter the stroke profile. It then discusses the effect of adding a fixed link, knuckle joint, or toggle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., progressive die sequencing, blank holder force optimization, sheet hydroforming, hot stamping, and springback and bending of advanced high-strength steels. It also discusses the factors that affect the accuracy of finite element simulations such as springback, thickness variations, and nonisothermal effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... with deformation processes such as stretching, bending, flanging, deep drawing, and blanking. It then describes the complex tribology of AHSS forming operations, the role of lubrication, the effect of tool steels and coatings, and the force and energy requirements of various forming presses. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the types of sensors used in sheet forming operations and the information they provide. It explains how force sensors protect equipment from overloads due to tool wear, friction, and misfeeds, how displacement and proximity sensors help to prevent die...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... being forged. This chapter covers the most common types of forging machines, explaining how they align with basic forging processes and corresponding force, energy, throughput, and accuracy requirements. forging forging machines 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Interaction between Process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... includes formulas for calculating shearing force, work, and power and describes various ways to increase production rates. billets shearing shearing equipment 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Billet and Sheared Surface Quality 13.3 Shearing Force, Work, and Power 13.4 Shearing Equipment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract The mechanical behavior of a material is its response to an applied load or force. Important mechanical properties are strength, hardness, stiffness, and ductility. This chapter discusses three principal ways in which these properties are tested: tension, compression...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract The physical properties of a material are those properties that can be measured or characterized without the application of force and without changing material identity. This chapter discusses in detail the common physical properties of metals, namely density, electrical...